3,001 research outputs found

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum

    Effect of Soluble ICAM-1 on a Sjögren's Syndrome-like Phenotype in NOD Mice Is Disease Stage Dependent

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    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is involved in migration and co-stimulation of T and B cells. Membrane bound ICAM-1 is over expressed in the salivary glands (SG) of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients and has therefore been proposed as a potential therapeutic target. To test the utility of ICAM-1 as a therapeutic target, we used local gene therapy in Non Obese Diabetic (NOD) mice to express soluble (s)ICAM-1 to compete with membrane bound ICAM-1 for binding with its receptor. Therapy was given prior to and just after the influx of immune cells into the SG.A recombinant serotype 2 adeno associated virus (rAAV2) encoding ICAM-1/Fc was constructed and its efficacy tested in the female NOD mice after retrograde instillation in SG at eight (early treatment) and ten (late treatment) weeks of age. SG inflammation was evaluated by focus score and immunohistochemical quantification of infiltrating cell types. Serum and SG tissue were analyzed for immunoglobulins (Ig).Early treatment with ICAM-1/Fc resulted in decreased average number of inflammatory foci without changes in T and B cell composition. In contrast, late treated mice did not show any change in focus scores, but immunohistochemical staining showed an increase in the overall number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Moreover, early treated mice showed decreased IgM within the SGs, whereas late treated mice had increased IgM levels, and on average higher IgG and IgA.Blocking the ICAM-1/LFA-1 interaction with sICAM-1/Fc may result in worsening of a SS like phenotype when infiltrates have already formed within the SG. As a treatment for human SS, caution should be taken targeting the ICAM-1 axis since most patients are diagnosed when inflammation is clearly present within the SG