62 research outputs found

    Metabolomic evaluation of PGPR defence priming in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars infected with Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (stripe rust)

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    Plant-microbe interactions are a phenomenal display of symbiotic/parasitic relationships between living organisms. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are some of the most widely investigated plant-beneficial microbes due to their capabilities in stimulating plant growth and development and conferring protection to plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. As such, PGPR-mediated plant priming/induced systemic resistance (ISR) has become a hot topic among researchers, particularly with prospects of applications in sustainable agriculture. The current study applies untargeted ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high-definition mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HDMS) to investigate PGPR-based metabolic reconfigurations in the metabolome of primed wheat plants against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tricti (Pst). A seed bio-priming approach was adopted, where seeds were coated with two PGPR strains namely Bacillus subtilis and Paenibacillus alvei (T22) and grown under controlled conditions in a glasshouse. The plants were infected with Pst one-week post-germination, followed by weekly harvesting of leaf material. Subsequent metabolite extraction was carried out for analysis on a UHPLC-HDMS system for data acquisition. The data was chemometrically processed to reveal the underlying trends and data structures as well as potential signatory biomarkers for priming against Pst. Results showed notable metabolic reprogramming in primary and secondary metabolism, where the amino acid and organic acid content of primed-control, primed-challenged and non-primed-challenged plants were differentially reprogrammed. Similar trends were observed from the secondary metabolism, in which primed plants (particularly primed-challenged) showed an up-regulation of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids-HCAs- and HCA amides) compared to the non-primed plants. The metabolomics-based semi-quantitative and qualitative assessment of the plant metabolomes revealed a time-dependent metabolic reprogramming in primed-challenged and primed-unchallenged plants, indicating the metabolic adaptations of the plants to stripe rust infection over time

    Mass spectral molecular networking to profile the metabolome of biostimulant bacillus strains

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    Beneficial soil microbes like plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) significantly contribute to plant growth and development through various mechanisms activated by plant-PGPR interactions. However, a complete understanding of the biochemistry of the PGPR and microbial intraspecific interactions within the consortia is still enigmatic. Such complexities constrain the design and use of PGPR formulations for sustainable agriculture. Therefore, we report the application of mass spectrometry (MS)-based untargeted metabolomics and molecular networking (MN) to interrogate and profile the intracellular chemical space of PGPR Bacillus strains: B. laterosporus, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis 1001, and B. licheniformis M017 and their consortium. The results revealed differential and diverse chemistries in the four Bacillus strains when grown separately, and also differing from when grown as a consortium. MolNetEnhancer networks revealed 11 differential molecular families that are comprised of lipids and lipid-like molecules, benzenoids, nucleotide-like molecules, and organic acids and derivatives. Consortium and B. amyloliquefaciens metabolite profiles were characterized by the high abundance of surfactins, whereas B. licheniformis strains were characterized by the unique presence of lichenysins. Thus, this work, applying metabolome mining tools, maps the microbial chemical space of isolates and their consortium, thus providing valuable insights into molecular information of microbial systems. Such fundamental knowledge is essential for the innovative design and use of PGPR-based biostimulants

    Differential metabolic reprogramming in paenibacillus alvei-primed sorghum bicolor seedlings in response to fusarium pseudograminearum infection

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    Metabolic changes in sorghum seedlings in response to Paenibacillus alvei (NAS-6G6)-induced systemic resistance against Fusarium pseudograminearum crown rot were investigated by means of untargeted ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high definition mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HDMS). Treatment of seedlings with the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium P. alvei at a concentration of 1 × 108 colony forming units mL- 1 prior to inoculation with F. pseudograminearum lowered crown rot disease severity significantly at the highest inoculum dose of 1 × 106 spores mL-1. Intracellular metabolites were subsequently methanol-extracted from treated and untreated sorghum roots, stems and leaves at 1, 4 and 7 days post inoculation (d.p.i.) with F. pseudograminearum. The extracts were analysed on an UHPLC-HDMS platform, and the data chemometrically processed to determine metabolic profiles and signatures related to priming and induced resistance. Significant treatment-related differences in primary and secondary metabolism post inoculation with F. pseudograminearum were observed between P. alvei-primed versus naïve S. bicolor seedlings. The differential metabolic reprogramming in primed plants comprised of a quicker and/or enhanced upregulation of amino acid-, phytohormone-, phenylpropanoid-, flavonoid- and lipid metabolites in response to inoculation with F. pseudograminearum.Supplementary Materials: Figure S1. (A) Microscopic identification of F. pseudograminearum at 400 × magnification. (B) Conidial morphology of F. pseudograminearum taken from Aoki et al. [65]. Figure S2. UHPLC-HDMS BPI chromatograms of ESI-positive data indicating the metabolomic profiles of untreated (black), naïve infected (blue) and primed infected (green) stems obtained at 1 d.p.i. with F. pseudograminearum. Figure S3. UHPLC-HDMS BPI chromatograms of ESI-positive data indicating the metabolomic profiles of untreated (black), naïve infected (blue) and primed infected (green) leaves obtained at 1 d.p.i. with F. pseudograminearum. Figure S4. PCA score/scatter plot of stem samples computed from ESI-positive data. Figure S5. PCA score/scatter plot of leaf samples computed from ESI-positive data. Figure S6. PCA score/scatter plot of root samples computed from ESI-negative data. Figure S7. PCA score/scatter plot of stems samples computed from ESI-negative data. Figure S8. PCA score/scatter plot of leaves samples computed from ESI-negative data. Figure S9. OPLS-DA modelling and variable/feature selection ESI-positive data (stem samples). Figure S10. OPLS-DA modelling and variable/feature selection ESI-positive data (leaf samples). Table S1. Summary of the description and validation of all the generated OPLS-DA models separating naïve versus primed S. bicolor plants. Figure S11. Summary of pathway analysis with MetPA. Figure S12. Venn diagram comparing the number of metabolites shown in Table 2 that were significantly upregulated at 1 d.p.i. (blue), 4 d.p.i. (yellow) and 7 d.p.i. (green) with F. pseudograminearum in primed versus naïve S. bicolor seedlings.https://www.mdpi.com/journal/metaboliteshj2020Plant Production and Soil Scienc

    A metabolomic landscape of maize plants treated with a microbial biostimulant under well-watered and drought conditions

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    Microbial plant biostimulants have been successfully applied to improve plant growth, stress resilience and productivity. However, the mechanisms of action of biostimulants are still enigmatic, which is the main bottleneck for the fully realization and implementation of biostimulants into the agricultural industry. Here, we report the elucidation of a global metabolic landscape of maize (Zea mays L) leaves in response to a microbial biostimulant, under well-watered and drought conditions. The study reveals that the increased pool of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates, alterations in amino acid levels and differential changes in phenolics and lipids are key metabolic signatures induced by the application of the microbial-based biostimulant. These reconfigurations of metabolism gravitate toward growth-promotion and defense preconditioning of the plant. Furthermore, the application of microbial biostimulant conferred enhanced drought resilience to maize plants via altering key metabolic pathways involved in drought resistance mechanisms such as the redox homeostasis, strengthening of the plant cell wall, osmoregulation, energy production and membrane remodeling. For the first time, we show key molecular events, metabolic reprogramming, activated by a microbial biostimulant for plant growth promotion and defense priming. Thus, these elucidated metabolomic insights contribute to ongoing efforts in decoding modes of action of biostimulants and generating fundamental scientific knowledgebase that is necessary for the development of the plant biostimulants industry, for sustainable food security

    Unravelling the metabolic reconfiguration of the post-challenge primed state in Sorghum bicolor responding to Colletotrichum sublineolum infection

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    Priming is a natural phenomenon that pre-conditions plants for enhanced defence against a wide range of pathogens. It represents a complementary strategy, or sustainable alternative that can provide protection against disease. However, a comprehensive functional and mechanistic understanding of the various layers of priming events is still limited. A non-targeted metabolomics approach was used to investigate metabolic changes in plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)-primed Sorghum bicolor seedlings infected with the anthracnose-causing fungal pathogen, Colletotrichum sublineolum, with a focus on the post-challenge primed state phase. At the 4-leaf growth stage, the plants were treated with a strain of Paenibacillus alvei at 108 cfu mL1. Following a 24 h PGPR application, the plants were inoculated with a C. sublineolum spore suspension (106 spores mL1), and the infection monitored over time: 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days post-inoculation. Non-infected plants served as negative controls. Intracellular metabolites from both inoculated and non-inoculated plants were extracted with 80% methanol-water. The extracts were chromatographically and spectrometrically analysed on an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) system coupled to high-definition mass spectrometry. The acquired multidimensional data were processed to create data matrices for chemometric modelling. The computed models indicated time-related metabolic perturbations that reflect primed responses to the fungal infection. Evaluation of orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) loading shared and unique structures (SUS)-plots uncovered the di erential stronger defence responses against the fungal infection observed in primed plants. These involved enhanced levels of amino acids (tyrosine, tryptophan), phytohormones (jasmonic acid and salicylic acid conjugates, and zeatin), and defence-related components of the lipidome. Furthermore, other defence responses in both naïve and primed plants were characterised by a complex mobilisation of phenolic compounds and de novo biosynthesis of the flavones, apigenin and luteolin and the 3-deoxyanthocyanidin phytoalexins, apigeninidin and luteolinidin, as well as some related conjugates.Supplementary Material: Figure S1: Evaluation of disease symptoms in Colletotrichum sublineolum infected sorghum plants; Figure S2: Representative BPI MS chromatograms of ESI(+) data (3 d.p.i.); Figure S3: Unsupervised chemometric modelling of ESI(-) data; Figure S4: OPLS-DA modelling and variable/feature selection. Table S1: Annotated (MSI-level 2) metabolites reported in Table 1, with fragmentation information.The South African National Research Foundation (NRF)http://www.mdpi.com/journal/metabolitesam2020Plant Production and Soil Scienc

    Metabolomic Analysis of Defense-Related Reprogramming in Sorghum bicolor in Response to Colletotrichum sublineolum Infection Reveals a Functional Metabolic Web of Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways

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    The metabolome of a biological system provides a functional readout of the cellular state, thus serving as direct signatures of biochemical events that define the dynamic equilibrium of metabolism and the correlated phenotype. Hence, to elucidate biochemical processes involved in sorghum responses to fungal infection, a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomic study was designed. Metabolic alterations of three sorghum cultivars responding to Colletotrichum sublineolum, were investigated. At the 4-leaf growth stage, the plants were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions and the infection monitored over time: 0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days post inoculation. Non-infected plants were used as negative controls. The metabolite composition of aqueous-methanol extracts were analyzed on an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography system coupled to high-definition mass spectrometry. The acquired multidimensional data were processed to create data matrices for multivariate statistical analysis and chemometric modeling. The computed chemometric models indicated time- and cultivar-related metabolic changes that reflect sorghum responses to the fungal infection. Metabolic pathway and correlation-based network analyses revealed that this multi-component defense response is characterized by a functional metabolic web, containing defense-related molecular cues to counterattack the pathogen invasion. Components of this network are metabolites from a range of interconnected metabolic pathways with the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways being the central hub of the web. One of the key features of this altered metabolism was the accumulation of an array of phenolic compounds, particularly de novo biosynthesis of the antifungal 3-deoxyanthocynidin phytoalexins, apigeninidin, luteolinidin, and related conjugates. The metabolic results were complemented by qRT-PCR gene expression analyses that showed upregulation of defense-related marker genes. Unraveling key characteristics of the biochemical mechanism underlying sorghum—C. sublineolum interactions, provided valuable insights with potential applications in breeding crop plants with enhanced disease resistance. Furthermore, the study contributes to ongoing efforts toward a comprehensive understanding of the regulation and reprogramming of plant metabolism under biotic stress

    Rhizobacteria-induced systemic resilience in Sorghum bicolor (L.) moench against Fusarium pseudograminearum crown rot under drought stress conditions

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    The potential of 77 rhizobacterial isolates to elicit induced systemic resilience (ISResilience) against combined biotic (Fusarium pseudograminearum crown rot) and abiotic (drought) stress in Sorghum bicolor was investigated. ISResilience was determined by assessing disease incidence and severity, plant height and biomass (root and shoots) in rhizobacteria-primed and untreated (naïve) plants inoculated with F. pseudograminearum and subjected to drought stress. Three rhizobacterial isolates (Paenibacillus alvei NAS-6G6, Pseudomonas taiwanensis N66 and Bacillus velezensis N54) showed significant protection of S. bicolor seedlings against biotic, abiotic and combined biotic and abiotic stress. Isolate N54, identified in this study as B. velezensis by 16S rRNA sequencing, was considered as the best performing rhizobacterial isolate to elicit ISResilience. Untargeted ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high definition mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HDMS) based metabolomics was used to investigate the mechanism by which ISResilience was elicited in S. bicolor by strain N54 (B. velezensis). Comparisons were made with isolates that were previously selected for induced systemic tolerance (ISTolerance) against drought stress (strain N66, Ps. taiwanensis) and induced systemic resistance (ISResistance) against F. pseudograminearum crown rot (strain NAS-6G6, Pa. alvei). The stress alleviation that resulted from treatment with the respective rhizobacterial isolates, was visually confirmed by the use of infrared (IR) thermography. For the metabolomics study, intracellular metabolites were methanol-extracted from rhizobacteria-primed and untreated (naïve) S. bicolor shoots. Extracts were analyzed on an UHPLC-HDMS platform, and the data were chemometrically analyzed to determine metabolite bio-markers related to ISResistance, ISTolerance and ISResilience. The results demonstrated significant treatment-related differences, reflecting differential metabolic reprogramming in S. bicolor in response to the biotic, abiotic and combined stresses. Synergistic effects involved in the lowered susceptibility to crown rot of rhizobacteria-primed S. bicolor seedlings, compared to those left naïve (untreated control) under drought stress conditions and the upregulation of the signatory molecules myo-inositol and riboflavin, provided evidence for the role of crosstalk in the ISResilience observed.The National Research Foundation (NRF) of South Africa and the University of Pretoria.http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ybcon2021-08-01hj2021Plant Production and Soil Scienc

    Application of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics for the study of fermented cereal and legume foods:a review

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    A new era of cutting-edge technologies and advancements in analytical platforms and omics sciences is disruptively bringing a paradigm shift in fundamental and translational research. Metabolomics is one of the omics strategies that yields big data and has gained popularity in a wide spectrum of applications. Among various analytical platforms used in metabolomics, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) allows the measurement of thermally stable (volatiles and semi-volatiles) metabolites, with an advantage of spectral reproducibility. Cereal and legume-based fermented foods are part of the food culture in various countries throughout the world. Thus, this review provides an overview of recent applications of GC-MS-based metabolomics in the food fermentation field, specifically cereal and legume-based fermented foods. This emerging use of metabolomics in food fermentation studies illustrates the potentials of this omics science to elucidate metabolome landscapes of fermented foods. Such insights would advance our predictive understanding of fermentation processes and molecular descriptions of resultant food products; a necessary step for improvements and sustainability in food industry. Furthermore, the review echoes the current need of collaborative efforts in the scientific community (in this field) to harness and maximise the potentials of metabolomics in food fermentation studies

    The Metabolomics Society-Current State of the Membership and Future Directions.

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    Background: In 2017, the Metabolomics Society conducted a survey among its members to assess the degree of its current success, define opportunities for improving its service to the community and make plans to establish future goals and direction of the Society. Methods: A 32-question online survey was sent via e-mail to all Metabolomics Society members as of 19 June 2017 (n = 644). In addition to the direct e-mails, the link to access the survey was made available through social media. The survey was open until 10 August 2017. Question-specific data were reported using the summary data generated by SurveyMonkey and additional stratified analyses performed using Stata 15. Results: The number of respondents was 394 (61%) with 348 (88%) completing the multiple-choice questions in survey. Metabolomics Society annual meetings, networking and the opportunity to join the global metabolomics community were among the most important benefits expressed by the Metabolomics Society members. Conclusions: The survey collected the first data focusing on membership issues from Society members. The Society should focus on collecting and monitoring of demographic data during the membership registration process; continuing to support the early-career members of the Society; and developing initiatives that focus on member networking to retain and increase Society membership
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