47 research outputs found

    First Direct Observation of Collider Neutrinos with FASER at the LHC

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    We report the first direct observation of neutrino interactions at a particle collider experiment. Neutrino candidate events are identified in a 13.6 TeV center-of-mass energy pppp collision data set of 35.4 fb1{}^{-1} using the active electronic components of the FASER detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The candidates are required to have a track propagating through the entire length of the FASER detector and be consistent with a muon neutrino charged-current interaction. We infer 15313+12153^{+12}_{-13} neutrino interactions with a significance of 16 standard deviations above the background-only hypothesis. These events are consistent with the characteristics expected from neutrino interactions in terms of secondary particle production and spatial distribution, and they imply the observation of both neutrinos and anti-neutrinos with an incident neutrino energy of significantly above 200 GeV.Comment: Submitted to PRL on March 24 202

    First neutrino interaction candidates at the LHC

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    FASERν\nu at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to directly detect collider neutrinos for the first time and study their cross sections at TeV energies, where no such measurements currently exist. In 2018, a pilot detector employing emulsion films was installed in the far-forward region of ATLAS, 480 m from the interaction point, and collected 12.2 fb1^{-1} of proton-proton collision data at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. We describe the analysis of this pilot run data and the observation of the first neutrino interaction candidates at the LHC. This milestone paves the way for high-energy neutrino measurements at current and future colliders.Comment: Auxiliary materials are available at https://faser.web.cern.ch/fasernu-first-neutrino-interaction-candidate

    The FASER Detector

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    FASER, the ForwArd Search ExpeRiment, is an experiment dedicated to searching for light, extremely weakly-interacting particles at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Such particles may be produced in the very forward direction of the LHC's high-energy collisions and then decay to visible particles inside the FASER detector, which is placed 480 m downstream of the ATLAS interaction point, aligned with the beam collisions axis. FASER also includes a sub-detector, FASERν\nu, designed to detect neutrinos produced in the LHC collisions and to study their properties. In this paper, each component of the FASER detector is described in detail, as well as the installation of the experiment system and its commissioning using cosmic-rays collected in September 2021 and during the LHC pilot beam test carried out in October 2021. FASER will start taking LHC collision data in 2022, and will run throughout LHC Run 3

    The OPERA Experiment and Recent Results

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    OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tRacking Apparatus) is a long-baseline neutrino experiment, designed to perform the first direct detection of νμ → ντ oscillation in appearance mode. The OPERA detector is placed in the CNGS long baseline νμ beam, 732 km away from the neutrino source. The detector, consisting of a modular target made of lead - nuclear emulsion units complemented by electronic trackers and muon spectrometers, has been conceived to select ντ charged current interactions through the observation of the outcoming tau leptons and their subsequent decays. Runs with CNGS neutrinos were carried out from 2008 to 2012. In this paper results on νμ → ντ oscillations with background estimation and statistical significance are reported

    Limits on muon-neutrino to tau-neutrino oscillations induced by a sterile neutrino state obtained by OPERA at the CNGS beam

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    The OPERA experiment, exposed to the CERN to Gran Sasso νµ beam, collected data from 2008 to 2012. Four oscillated ντ Charged Current interaction candidates have been detected in appearance mode, which are consistent with νµ → ντ oscillations at the atmospheric ∆m^2 within the “standard” three-neutrino framework. In this paper, the OPERA ντ appearance results are used to derive limits on the mixing parameters of a massive sterile neutrino

    Discovery of τ Neutrino Appearance in the CNGS Neutrino Beam with the OPERA Experiment

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    The OPERA experiment was designed to search for νµ → ντ oscillations in appearance mode, i.e. by detecting the τ leptons produced in charged current ντ interactions. The experiment took data from 2008 to 2012 in the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso beam. The observation of the νµ → ντ appearance, achieved with four candidate events in a subsample of the data, was previously reported. In this Letter, a fifth ντ candidate event, found in an enlarged data sample, is described. Together with a further reduction of the expected background, the candidate events detected so far allow us to assess the discovery of νµ → ντ oscillations in appearance mode with a significance larger than 5 σ

    Measurement of the TeV atmospheric muon charge ratio with the complete OPERA data set

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    The OPERA detector, designed to search for νμ → ντ oscillations in the CNGS beam, is located in the underground Gran Sasso laboratory, a privileged location to study TeV-scale cosmic rays. For the analysis here presented, the detector was used to measure the atmospheric muon charge ratio in the TeV region. OPERA collected chargeseparated cosmic ray data between 2008 and 2012. More than 3 million atmospheric muon events were detected and reconstructed, among which about 110000 multiple muon bundles. The charge ratio Rμ ≡ Nμ+/Nμ− was measured separately for single and for multiple muon events. The analysis exploited the inversion of the magnet polarity which was performed on purpose during the 2012 Run. The combination of the two data sets with opposite magnet polarities allowedminimizing systematic uncertainties and reaching an accurate determination of the muon charge ratio. Data were fitted to obtain relevant parameters on the composition of primary cosmic rays and the associated kaon production in the forward fragmentation region. In the surface energy range 1–20 TeV investigated by OPERA, Rμ is well described by a parametric model including only pion and kaon contributions to themuon flux, showing no significant contribution of the prompt component. The energy independence supports the validity of Feynman scaling in the fragmentation region up to 200 TeV/nucleon primary energy

    Observation of tau neutrino appearance in the CNGS beam with the OPERA experiment

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    The OPERA experiment is searching for νμ → ντ oscillations in appearance mode, i.e., via the direct detection of τ leptons in ντ charged-current interactions. The evidence of νμ → ντ appearance has been previously reported with three ντ candidate events using a sub-sample of data from the 2008–2012 runs. We report here a fourth ντ candidate event, with the τ decaying into a hadron, found after adding the 2012 run events without any muon in the final state to the data sample. Given the number of analyzed events and the low background, νμ → ντ oscillations are established with a significance of 4.2σ

    The OPERA experiment

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    The OPERA experiment was designed to study νμ→ντ oscillations in appearance mode using the CERN to Gran Sasso high energy neutrino beam. From 2008 to 2012, 19505 CNGS neutrino interactions were recorded in the OPERA detector. At the present status of the analysis, 4 ντ candidate events have been observed, establishing the oscillation mechanism in the atmospheric sector with a significance of 4.2 σ. The oscillation analysis will be presented in detail and the candidate events will be described. The final measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio in the TeV region will be also reported

    Procedure for short-lived particle detection in the OPERA experiment and its application to charm decays

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    The OPERA experiment, designed to perform the first observation of νμ→ντ oscillations in appearance mode through the detection of the τ leptons produced in ντ charged current interactions, has collected data from 2008 to 2012. In the present paper, the procedure developed to detect τ particle decays, occurring over distances of the order of 1 mm from the neutrino interaction point, is described in detail. The results of its application to the search for charmed hadrons are then presented as a validation of the methods for ντ appearance detection
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