137 research outputs found

    The Role of Education in Native Dutch Adolescents’ Muslim Population Size Perceptions

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    This study investigates competing explanations for the effect of education on native adolescents’ Muslim population size perceptions. Drawing on theories about heuristic reasoning, we analyze to what extent the effect of education on size perceptions may be explained by differences in contact with and prejudice towards Muslims. The hypotheses are tested using longitudinal data on adolescents in the Netherlands (N = 1218). Overall, there is a tendency to overestimate the size of the national Muslim population. Furthermore, we find that higher educated adolescents tend to provide lower estimates of the Muslim population size. This relationship is partially mediated by earlier differences in school composition, as Muslims are concentrated to a greater extent in lower education. The relation between education and size perceptions cannot be attributed to differences in prejudice. Hence, we conclude that the effect of education on size perceptions is likely due to greater numeracy rather than negative evaluations of the outgroup

    Longitudinal Changes in Interracial Hate Crimes in the USA, 1990–2014: Does Racial Composition Matter?

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    Studies on the relationship between racial composition and interracial hate crimes are largely cross-sectional, while little is known about longitudinal developments. This paper examines the impact of longitudinal changes in the racial composition of regions on interracial hate crimes in the USA. We use official statistics on 120,000 White on Black hate crimes that were committed across 3500 regions in the period between 1990 and 2014. Applying longitudinal multi-level modelling, we find that during this period there was an overall decline in interracial hate crimes. Furthermore, our results reveal that the decline was more pronounced in regions that witnessed a significant reduction in the share of Whites. Despite concerns that increasing racial diversity may lead to more interracial animosity and hate crimes, our study suggests the opposite. As the numerical predominance of White people in USA erodes, the number of White on Black hate crimes decreases

    Post-Migration Education Among Refugees in the Netherlands

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    Refugees face significant barriers in the labor markets of western countries due to limited transferability of educational credentials. Post-migration education can increase refugees’ chances in the labor market, but little is known about the prevalence and underlying patterns of such post-secondary educational investments. I contribute to the literature by analyzing survey data from the Netherlands on post-migration education among more than 3,000 adult refugees who come from Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia, and Somalia. I find that refugees’ investments in schooling depend on both pre- and post-migration characteristics. Results show that post-migration schooling is more common among adult refugees who are higher educated, who arrived at a younger age, who have applied for recognition of their foreign education, and who have (successfully) participated in integration and/or language courses. When refugees are kept in an asylum center for a longer time, they are less likely to invest in post-migration education.</p

    What Drives Anti-Immigrant Sentiments Online? A Novel Approach Using Twitter

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    Most studies use survey data to study peoples prejudiced views. In a digitally connected world, research is needed on out-group sentiments expressed online. In this study, we show how one can elaborate on existing sociological theories (i.e. group threat theory, contact theory) to test whether anti-immigrant sentiments expressed on Twitter are related to sociological conditions. We introduce and illustrate a new method of collecting data on online sentiments, creating a panel of 28,000 Twitter users in 39 regions in the United Kingdom. We apply automated text analysis to quantify anti-immigrant sentiments of 500,000 tweets over a 1-year period. In line with group threat theory, we find that people tweet more negatively about immigrants in periods following more salient coverage of immigration in the news. We find this association both for national news coverage, and for the salience of immigration in the personalized set of outlets people follow on Twitter. In support of contact theory, we find evidence to suggest that Twitter users living in areas with more non-western immigrants, and those who follow a more ethnically diverse group of people, tweet less negatively about immigrants

    Vooruitgang in de Nederlandse sociologie: Het belang van diversiteit en beschikbaarheid van data

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    How has Dutch sociology developed in its centenary? What are the most important changes? Nowadays, sociologists can download publicly available, cross-national survey data in a few minutes on their computer. This practice, which greatly advances theoretical and empirical insights in sociology, is easily taken for granted. Behind this practice, however, are important data innovations. In this overview article, I sketch how innovations in sociology have led to more and more different data sources on the menu of sociologists, that data has become qualitatively better, and that data has been made much more available to third parties. It is this data revolution that has allowed sociologists to describe and explain social reality better than before, and that the relevance of the discipline to society has gained momentum

    Post-Migration Education Among Refugees in the Netherlands

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    Refugees face significant barriers in the labor markets of western countries due to limited transferability of educational credentials. Post-migration education can increase refugees’ chances in the labor market, but little is known about the prevalence and underlying patterns of such post-secondary educational investments. I contribute to the literature by analyzing survey data from the Netherlands on post-migration education among more than 3,000 adult refugees who come from Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia, and Somalia. I find that refugees’ investments in schooling depend on both pre- and post-migration characteristics. Results show that post-migration schooling is more common among adult refugees who are higher educated, who arrived at a younger age, who have applied for recognition of their foreign education, and who have (successfully) participated in integration and/or language courses. When refugees are kept in an asylum center for a longer time, they are less likely to invest in post-migration education

    Immigrant generation and religiosity: a study of Christian immigrant groups in 33 European countries

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    Although Christian migrant groups make up a sizeable part of the immigrant population in Europe, little is known about their religiosity. This paper studies patterns of intergenerational change and proposes and tests hypotheses that specify when and why changes across generations are stronger. Using data from the European Social Survey (2002–2018) on 33 European countries, it is found that there is a strong pattern of intergenerational decline in the level of religiosity among Christian migrant groups in Europe. This process of religious decline is by no means universal. Results show that children from two foreign-born parents are much more religious than children from intermarried (foreign-born and native) couples. We also observe that intergenerational decline is much less pronounced in European countries that are more religious. Finally, when Christian migrant groups belong to a religious minority group, this is associated with higher levels of religiosity in both the first and second generation. It is argued that these insights can explain the ‘puzzling’ strong intergenerational religious transmission among Muslim migrant groups in Western European societies

    Attitudes towards homosexuality among ethnic majority and minority adolescents in Western Europe: The role of ethnic classroom composition

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    Ethnic minorities from more traditional countries tend to hold more conservative views towards homosexuality compared to the ethnic majority population in Western Europe. Assimilation theory predicts that this difference diminishes over time because of exposure and contact between these groups. The role of ethnic classroom composition in this process of cultural assimilation is poorly understood. Therefore, this article examines the role of the country of origin of adolescents and their classroom peers in the assimilation of attitudes towards homosexuality. Using two-wave panel data on 18,058 students in 867 classrooms in England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden, we find that the attitudes towards homosexuality in classroom peers’ country of origin are positively associated with attitudes towards homosexuality of respondents in the first wave but have no effect on subsequent changes in these attitudes over a two-year period. We find some variations in this association according to individual-level characteristics, but these results are not consistent across the countries that we study. Together, these results suggest that the classroom is an important socializing context in the formation of cultural values, and that its influence is relatively uniform across groups

    Post-Migration Education Among Refugees in the Netherlands

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    Refugees face significant barriers in the labor markets of western countries due to limited transferability of educational credentials. Post-migration education can increase refugees’ chances in the labor market, but little is known about the prevalence and underlying patterns of such post-secondary educational investments. I contribute to the literature by analyzing survey data from the Netherlands on post-migration education among more than 3,000 adult refugees who come from Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia, and Somalia. I find that refugees’ investments in schooling depend on both pre- and post-migration characteristics. Results show that post-migration schooling is more common among adult refugees who are higher educated, who arrived at a younger age, who have applied for recognition of their foreign education, and who have (successfully) participated in integration and/or language courses. When refugees are kept in an asylum center for a longer time, they are less likely to invest in post-migration education
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