25 research outputs found

    New routines, growing interference and operational efficiency gains: the influence of Czar Peter the Great's economic policy on Dutch maritime shipping with Russia, 1709-1724

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    This paper is an attempt to analyze how the Dutch shipping and trade system reacted to the profound changes that occurred in Dutch-Russian trade relations in the first two decades of the eighteenth century. It will be substantiated that the changes that occurred had complex underlying causes: it is in fact the combination of far-reaching protectionist measures aimed at the polarization of St. Petersburg, changes in product demand in the Netherlands and the weakened position of Dutch maritime shipping as opposed to its direct competitors (primarily English shipping). In this paper, the primary focus will be on the effects of the polarization of St. Petersburg. It will be argued that Czar Peter the Great's foreign and domestic economic policies led to the emergence of new routines, the abandonment of the traditional Archangel route, growing interference between nearby destinations in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland and operational efficiency gains in goods transportation to and from Russia. The paper challenges the traditional view of maritime shipping as a spin-off effect of trade and embraces a more comprehensive analytical point of view that has its foundations in evolutionary economic theory

    Building and strengthening Indigenous early career researcher trajectories

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    Due to their Indigeneity, Indigenous early career researchers are positioned differently and therefore experience the higher education sector differently to their non-Indigenous peers. Such positioning significantly impacts the development and progression of Indigenous academic research career trajectories. This article reports from the first stage of a three-year longitudinal study to examine the self-identified support needs of Indigenous early career researchers. The findings offer six factors that are crucial in supporting Indigenous early career researchers to develop and establish sound research careers within the academy. This article engages Indigenous standpoints related to the cultural interface and Indigenist research, with a view to shaping institutional responses to supporting Indigenous research career trajectories and further to recognise Indigenous Knowledges as integral to building global academies of teaching, learning and research

    On the front foot : Indigenous leadership in Aotearoa/New Zealand higher education

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    Despite increasing representation in higher education, Māori leaders are still seeking to overcome historical inequities and racial discrimination. This study investigates the circumstances of Māori leadership in higher education from a strength-based standpoint, highlighting the critical role Māori academics fulfil in senior leadership positions in Aotearoa/New Zealand universities by exploring Māori perceptions of the scope, influence and challenges of their senior leadership roles. These perceptions are described by five participants in the study and supported by literature predominantly authored by Māori academics. The qualitative study is underpinned by Political Race Theory, linking race and power at the individual level as well as at the institutional level. Findings give voice to senior leaders’ answers to the critical question: how can Indigenous leadership secure sustainable, transformative change in Aotearoa/New Zealand universities. The response to this question is underscored by the notion of shifting leadership positioning from the back-foot reactive politics to a front-foot status of strategic and transformative leadership. Reporting on Stage Five of an Australian project–Walan Mayiny: Indigenous Leadership in Higher Education, this study is the second in a series of three international case studies investigating Indigenous leadership in higher education

    Paying-it-forward : Indigenous leadership in American higher education

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    This study focuses on Native American experiences of senior leadership in higher education, presenting a paradigm of Indigenous leadership based on the principle of paying-it-forward. The qualitative study, underpinned by Indigenist methodology, centers the responses of four Native American senior leaders in mainland America and Hawai´i who have strategically designed community-building policies and practices to counter ongoing isolation in higher education. Findings detail place-based leadership paradigms and practical strategies derived from Native American leadership rationales, showing the power of Native American leadership to challenge systemically biased perceptions, policies and practices that endeavor to isolate Indigenous peoples from each other, culture, language, and ways of being knowing and doing. The study is part of the international phase of an Australian-based project not only gives insight into higher education internationally, but also creates opportunity for consideration of what we can learn to our advantage in other colonized contexts

    Not in my backyard : the impact of culture shock on Indigenous Australians in higher education

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    The body of literature providing evidence that Indigenous Australians are significantly under-represented in higher education is steadily increasing. For instance, the Review of Australian Higher Education (2008) identified Indigenous Australians as one of the three most under-represented groups. Similarly, key bodies such as the Indigenous Higher Education Advisory Council refer to significant disparity when undertaking statistical data analysis of Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. In other words, the fact that Indigenous Australians participate in higher education at a lower rate than that of other students is widely acknowledged – however the reasons underpinning such disparity are less transparent. This paper purports that the culture shock Indigenous Australian students experience when accessing higher education can be detrimental to their academic aspirations and outcomes. When exploring the notion of culture shock there is a tendency to assume that this only affects international students, when in fact it is rampant in our own back yard. The paper concludes by offering a set of recommendations designed to assist institutions to implement strategies to reduce the negative impact of culture shock experienced by Indigenous Australian university students

    There was movement at the station : western education at Moola Bulla, 1910-1955

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    Purpose – The focus of this paper is to centre the lived experiences and perceptions of western education held by Aboriginal people who lived at Moola Bulla Native Cattle Station (Moola Bulla) in Western Australia, between 1910 and 1955. Of interest is an investigation into how government legislations and policies influenced these experiences and perceptions. The purpose of this paper is to promote the powerful narrative that simultaneously acknowledges injustice and honours Aboriginal agency. Design/methodology/approach – The research from which this paper is drawn moves away from colonial, paternalistic and racist interpretations of history; it is designed to decolonise the narrative of Aboriginal education in remote Western Australia. The research uses the wide and deep angle lens of qualitative historical research, filtered by decolonising methodologies and standpoint theory. Simultaneously, the paper valorises the contributions Indigenous academics are making to the decolonisation of historical research. Findings – Preliminary findings suggest the narrative told by the residents who were educated at Moola Bulla support a reframing of previous deficit misrepresentations of indigeneity into strength-based narratives. These narratives, or “counter stories”, articulate resistance to colonial master narratives. Social implications – This paper argues that listening to Aboriginal lived experiences and perceptions of western education from the past will better inform our engagement with the delivery of equitable educational opportunities for Aboriginal students in remote contexts in the future. Originality/value – This paper will contribute to the wider academic community by addressing accountability in Aboriginal education. Most important to the study is the honouring of the participants and families of those who once lived on Moola Bulla, many who are speaking back through the telling of their story

    Australian Indigenous early career researchers : unicorns, cash cows and performing monkeys

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    Data from the Developing Indigenous Early Career Researchers (ECRs) project reported that efforts of Indigenous ECRs are often undermined by examples of micro-racism. Shared personal experiences revealed racist attitudes and assumptions held by some non-Indigenous academics. This draws critical attention to the fact that while many institutions have developed Indigenous strategies to address disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous staff and student’s, racism is prevelant in higher education institutions across Australia. In this study, Indigenous ECRs metaphorically described their presence in the academy as unicorns, cash cows or performing monkeys. These terms illustrate the way in which Indigenous ECR attendance in the Australian higher education sector has been viewed, devalued and/or undermined by non-Indigenous academics and the institutions in which they are employed. Specifically, the notion of behavioural racism is used to critique the level of engagement and commitment of non-Indigenous academics to the inclusion of Indigenous knowledges and worldviews

    A sociocultural approach to supporting Indigenous Australian success

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    Australia, reflecting a global trend, is seeking to capitalise on the knowledge economy by widening participation in higher education at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level (Australian Government, 2009; Gale, 2014; Samuel & Mariaye, 2014). The broader inclusion of people who might not previously have attended university, such as Indigenous people and people with disabilities, is increasingly recognised as crucial to future economic growth, international competiveness and national prosperity (Bradley, Noonan, Nugent, & Scales, 2008; Lomax-Smith, Watson, & Webster, 20111)

    [In Press] Shaming the silences : Indigenous Graduate Attributes and the privileging of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander voices

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    An increasing number of Australian universities are committing to Indigenous Graduate Attributes across a wide range of academic disciplines. This paper critiques not only the slow up-take of Indigenous Graduate Attributes in the last 10 years, but also how such attributes may realistically contribute to university students graduating with increased ‘awareness’, ‘knowledges’ and ‘abilities’ to work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and communities. It is reasoned that any commitment to Indigenous Graduate Attributes must be carefully and critically monitored for the silencing effects of colonial narratives that also are prevalent throughout Australian Indigenous Studies (which is arguably the foundation of realising Indigenous Graduate Attributes). Drawing from a diversity of Indigenous standpoint theories, critical studies and research methodologies, the paper offers a critical evaluative framework through which both Indigenous Graduate Attributes and the content within the teaching and learning of Australian Indigenous Studies may be evaluated. This includes an acute awareness of imposed colonial narratives, a critical awareness of one’s own positioning, engagement with Indigenous voices, knowledge of Indigenous Research Methodologies, and more meaningful levels of Indigenous engagement through Indigenous ethics and protocols

    [In Press] Peak bodies : Indigenous representation in the Australian higher education sector

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    The number of Indigenous Australians engaged in the higher education has risen steadily in recent years. Since the 1970s, several groups have been established to represent issues impacting Indigenous staff and students across the Australian higher education sector. Despite the deep passion and commitment by Indigenous leaders to advance Indigenous education in general, no single group currently provides adequate representation and advocacy on these issues. This article reports on findings from an Australian Research Council-funded study on Indigenous leadership in higher education. In doing so, it shares the perspectives of senior Indigenous leaders, university executive such as Vice-Chancellors and Indigenous academics. Ultimately, this article purports that it is necessary for the Federal Government and Universities Australia to work collaboratively with Indigenous People if we are going to see collective advancement across the sector and that this needs to occur in a more meaningful way than currently exercised
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