745 research outputs found

    Novel analytical tool for a univocal flavor and fragrance identification: Gas chromatography coupled with condensed-phase FTIR and TOF mass spectrometry

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    The correct identification of flavor and fragrance (F&F) compounds in real samples is still a challenge despite the huge number of different instruments available. Only a slight structural difference can cause a very different sensory profile, for example in the case of geometric isomers, it is generally considered that (Z)-isomers have a more pleasant and natural odor than (E) ones.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† The most frequently used instrument for the analysis of volatiles is gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). MS may still fail to adequately identify compounds because of the lack of specificity of spectra (terpenes, isomers). MS spectral searches can be supported with linear retention index (LRI) information which, although not in all cases, could resolve the problem of possible misidentification of target molecules.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Condensed phase FTIR can be a complementary detection system to MS, and its application could allow a very detailed structural elucidation. The novelty of this instrument is that the separated compounds are condensed in small, singular spots on a rotating disc, thus the distortion of spectra is eliminated, giving an excellent spectral resolution. Through the specificity of the ‚Äúfingerprint‚ÄĚ region around 1100 cm-1, even positional isomers and diastereomers could be distinguished.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Coupling condensed-phase FTIR after a simple post-column split to a GC-TOF MS, three independent analytical information can be obtained about the target compound: retention behavior (LRI), MS and FTIR spectra. Exploiting the enhanced resolution of the TOF MS and discriminating power of FTIR a unique TOF MS/FTIR spectral library with more than 1500 F&F compounds was developed, including also experimental LRI. Boosting this comprehensive information collection, a universal post-run software, namely CromatoPlus Spectra, performs the library search using the FTIR spectral similarity and LRI filter, simultaneously. A GC-TOF MS/FTIR method was optimized for the analysis of real essential-oil and perfume samples. Using the F&F library with embedded LRI, a reliable peak assignment was obtained for each separated compound

    Antitumor immunization of mothers delays tumor development in cancer-prone offspring

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    Maternal immunization is successfully applied against some life-threatening infectious diseases as it can protect the mother and her offspring through the passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Here, we sought to evaluate whether the concept of maternal immunization could also be applied to cancer immune-prevention. We have previously shown that antibodies induced by DNA vaccination against rat Her2 (neu) protect heterozygous neu-transgenic female (BALB-neuT) mice from autochthonous mammary tumor development. We, herein, seek to evaluate whether a similar maternal immunization can confer antitumor protection to BALB-neuT offspring. Significantly extended tumor-free survival was observed in BALB-neuT offspring born and fed by mothers vaccinated against neu, as compared to controls. Maternally derived anti-neu immunoglobulin G (IgG) was successfully transferred from mothers to newborns and was responsible for the protective effect. Vaccinated mothers and offspring also developed active immunity against neu as revealed by the presence of T‚Äďcell-mediated cytotoxicity against the neu immunodominant peptide. This active response was due to the milk transfer of immune complexes that were formed between the neu extracellular domain, shed from vaccine-transfected muscle cells, and the anti-neu IgG induced by the vaccine. These findings show that maternal immunization has the potential to hamper mammary cancer in genetically predestinated offspring and to develop into applications against lethal neonatal cancer diseases for which therapeutic options are currently unavailable

    Cannabis terpene profiling in therapeutic products by means of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry

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    It is well-known that cannabinoids provide non-toxic medical benefits and have an effective role in the treatment of chronic pain due to their interaction with the endocannabinoid system. Recently, in addition to the ‚Äúclassical‚ÄĚ therapeutic usage, like inhalation or ingestion of cannabis, newer ways of cannabinoid-based products utilization are also being developed. The skin application of topicals including balms, lotions, and oils that are infused with active cannabinoids is a minimally invasive method for the medical cannabis use and allows them to be absorbed directly into the affected area for faster and more focused relief.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† According to the terpene profile, the medicinal effect of cannabinoids can change significantly. Terpenes, in fact, have various roles: can make the adsorption of cannabinoids faster, or lessen their effect, interact with cannabinoids, decrease the side-effects of the cannabinoid therapy, and help to relax and calm the patient.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis is a powerful analytical tool for detailed characterization of the volatile fractions of any kind of complex sample. For the identification, mass spectral databases are used, but in many cases, misidentification could occur due to the high spectral similarity of terpenes. The Linear Retention Index (LRI) approach combined with conventional mass spectral search provide a more reliable solution for peak assignment. The FFNSC 4.0 (Flavour and Fragrance Natural and Synthetic Compounds), a dedicated MS Library with embedded LRI information, including almost all of the 140 known cannabis terpenes can be a great support in terpene profiling, thereby also in the optimization of the therapy.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Aroma constituents of cannabinoid-containing medicinal products were analyzed by GC-MS. To obtain the characteristic volatile fraction, sample preparation method was optimized for each sample type. Terpenes were identified using FFNSC 4.0 database

    Irinotecan- vs. Oxaliplatin-Based Doublets in KRASG12C-Mutated Metastatic Colorectal Cancer-A Multicentre Propensity-Score-Matched Retrospective Analysis

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    The sensitivity to chemotherapy of KRASG12C-mutated colorectal cancer has been investigated to verify whether the combination of chemotherapy plus a KRASG12C-inhibitor might become the standard of care in the near future. To this aim, the present retrospective study was designed to assess the performance of irinotecan vs. oxaliplatin in the first-line treatment of KRASG12C-mutated mCRC patients and provide support for first-line decision making. In this setting of patients treated with FOLFIRI or FOLFOX +/ bevacizumab, irinotecan and oxaliplatin were compared using a propensity-score-matched analysis. the survival superiority of irinotecan was demonstrated over oxaliplatin in KRASG12C-mutated patients, while no differences were observed in a control cohort of KRASG12D-mutated patients. this should be considered when investigating chemotherapy plus targeted agent combinations.background: KRAS(G12C)-mutated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has recently been recognized as a distinct druggable molecular entity; however, there are limited data on its sensitivity to standard chemotherapy. In the near future, the combination of chemotherapy plus a KRAS(G12C)inhibitor might become the standard of care; however, the optimal chemotherapy backbone is unknown. methods: a multicentre retrospective analysis was conducted including KRASG12C-mutated mCRC patients treated with first-line FOLFIRI or FOLFOX +/ bevacizumab. Both unmatched and propensity-score-matched analysis (PSMA) were conducted, with PSMA controlling for: previous adjuvant chemotherapy, ECOG PS, use of bevacizumab in first line, timing of metastasis appearance, time from diagnosis to first-line start, number of metastatic sites, presence of mucinous component, gender, and age. Subgroup analyses were also performed to investigate subgroup treatment-effect interactions. KRAS(G12D)-mutated patients were analysed as control. results: one hundred and four patients treated with irinotecan-(N = 47) or oxaliplatin-based (N = 57) chemotherapy were included. In the unmatched population, objective response rate (ORR) and median (m) progression-free and overall survival (mPFS and mOS) were comparable between the treatment arms. however, a late (>12 months) PFS advantage was observed with irinotecan (HR 0.62, p = 0.02). In the PSMA-derived cohort, a significant improvement with irinotecan vs. oxaliplatin was observed for both PFS and OS: 12- and 24-month PFS rates of 55% vs. 31% and 40% vs. 0% (HR 0.40, p = 0.01) and mOS 37.9 vs. 21.7 months (HR 0.45, p = 0.045), respectively. According to the subgroup analysis, interaction effects between the presence of lung metastases and treatment groups were found in terms of PFS (p for interaction = 0.08) and OS (p for interaction = 0.03), with a higher benefit from irinotecan in patients without lung metastases. no difference between treatment groups was observed in the KRASG12D-mutated cohort (N = 153). Conclusions: First-line irinotecan-based regimens provided better survival results in KRAS(G12C)-mutated mCRC patients and should be preferred over oxaliplatin. These findings should also be considered when investigating chemotherapy plus targeted agent combinations

    Changes in renal function after nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract carcinoma: analysis of a large multicenter cohort (Radical Nephroureterectomy Outcomes (RaNeO) Research Consortium)

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    Purpose To investigate prevalence and predictors of renal function variation in a multicenter cohort treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Methods Patients from 17 tertiary centers were included. Renal function variation was evaluated at postoperative day (POD)-1, 6 and 12 months. Timepoints differences were Delta 1 = POD-1 eGFR - baseline eGFR; Delta 2 = 6 months eGFR - POD-1 eGFR; Delta 3 = 12 months eGFR - 6 months eGFR. We defined POD-1 acute kidney injury (AKI) as an increase in serum creatinine by >= 0.3 mg/dl or a 1.5 1.9-fold from baseline. Additionally, a cutoff of 60 ml/min in eGFR was considered to define renal function decline at 6 and 12 months. Logistic regression (LR) and linear mixed (LM) models were used to evaluate the association between clinical factors and eGFR decline and their interaction with follow-up. Results A total of 576 were included, of these 409(71.0%) and 403(70.0%) had an eGFR < 60 ml/min at 6 and 12 months, respectively, and 239(41.5%) developed POD-1 AKI. In multivariable LR analysis, age (Odds Ratio, OR 1.05, p < 0.001), male gender (OR 0.44, p = 0.003), POD-1 AKI (OR 2.88, p < 0.001) and preoperative eGFR < 60 ml/min (OR 7.58, p < 0.001) were predictors of renal function decline at 6 months. Age (OR 1.06, p < 0.001), coronary artery disease (OR 2.68, p = 0.007), POD-1 AKI (OR 1.83, p = 0.02), and preoperative eGFR < 60 ml/min (OR 7.80, p < 0.001) were predictors of renal function decline at 12 months. In LM models, age (p = 0.019), hydronephrosis (p < 0.001), POD-1 AKI (p < 0.001) and pT-stage (p = 0.001) influenced renal function variation (ss 9.2 +/- 0.7, p < 0.001) during follow-up. Conclusion Age, preoperative eGFR and POD-1 AKI are independent predictors of 6 and 12 months renal function decline after RNU for UTUC

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an

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    Risk portfolio on modern finance has become increasingly technical, requiring the use of sophisticated mathematical tools in both research and practice. Since companies cannot insure themselves completely against risk, as human incompetence in predicting the future precisely that written in Al-Quran surah Luqman verse 34, they have to manage it to yield an optimal portfolio. The objective here is to minimize the variance among all portfolios, or alternatively, to maximize expected return among all portfolios that has at least a certain expected return. Furthermore, this study focuses on optimizing risk portfolio so called Markowitz MVO (Mean-Variance Optimization). Some theoretical frameworks for analysis are arithmetic mean, geometric mean, variance, covariance, linear programming, and quadratic programming. Moreover, finding a minimum variance portfolio produces a convex quadratic programming, that is minimizing the objective function √į√į¬•with constraints√į √į √į¬• ¬• √įand√į¬ī√į¬• = √į. The outcome of this research is the solution of optimal risk portofolio in some investments that could be finished smoothly using MATLAB R2007b software together with its graphic analysis

    Search for heavy resonances decaying to two Higgs bosons in final states containing four b quarks