1,800 research outputs found

    Assessment of chicken breast shelf life based on bench-top and portable near-infrared spectroscopy tools coupled with chemometrics

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    Abstract Objectives Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a rapid technique able to assess meat quality even if its capability to determine the shelf life of chicken fresh cuts is still debated, especially for portable devices. The aim of the study was to compare bench-top and portable NIR instruments in discriminating between four chicken breast refrigeration times (RT), coupled with multivariate classifier models. Materials and Methods Ninety-six samples were analysed by both NIR tools at 2, 6, 10 and 14 days post mortem. NIR data were subsequently submitted to partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA). The latter was preceded by double feature selection based on Boruta and Stepwise procedures. Results PLS-DA sorted moderate separation of RT theses, while shelf life assessment was more accurate on application of Stepwise-CDA. Bench-top tool had better performance than portable one, probably because it captured more informative spectral data as shown by the variable importance in projection (VIP) and restricted pool of Stepwise-CDA predictive scores (SPS). Conclusions NIR tools coupled with a multivariate model provide deep insight into the physicochemical processes occurring during storage. Spectroscopy showed reliable effectiveness to recognise a 7-day shelf life threshold of breasts, suitable for routine at-line application for screening of meat quality

    Farmed fish welfare during slaughter in Italy: survey on stunning and killing methods and indicators of unconsciousness

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    Information on slaughter procedures for farmed fish in aquaculture is limited, both in Europe and in Italy, due to a general lack of field data. The aim of this study was to gather information on the procedures used to slaughter fish in Italy and to discuss them considering the WOAH and EFSA recommendations on fish welfare. Using a questionnaire survey, data were collected by official veterinarians in 64 slaughtering facilities where 20 different species of fish were slaughtered. The main species slaughtered were rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 29/64), followed by European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax; 21/64), sea bream (Sparus aurata; 21/64), Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus; 14/64), European eel (Anguilla anguilla; 11/64), sturgeon (Acipenser spp; 11/64), common carp (Cyprinus carpio; 6/64), and brown trout (Salmo trutta fario L.; 5/64). The most applied stunning/killing methods were ‚Äúasphyxia in ice/thermal shock‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúelectric in water bath,‚ÄĚ followed by ‚Äúpercussion,‚ÄĚ ‚Äúasphyxia in air,‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúelectric dry system.‚ÄĚ After the application of the method, the assessment of the fish level of unconsciousness was practiced in 72% of the facilities using more than one indicator, with ‚Äúbreathing‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúcoordinated movements‚ÄĚ the most practiced. The collected data showed a discrepancy between the available recommendations about the welfare of fish at slaughter and what is practiced in many production sites, but for many species precise recommendations are still not available

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

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