3,350 research outputs found

### Anomalous Transport in Velocity Space, from Fokker-Planck to General Equation

The problem of anomalous diffusion in momentum (velocity) space is considered
based on the master equation and the appropriate probability transition
function (PTF). The approach recently developed by the author for coordinate
space, is applied with necessary modifications to velocity space. A new general
equation for the time evolution of the momentum distribution function in
momentum space is derived. This allows the solution of various problems of
anomalous transport when the probability transition function (PTF) has a long
tail in momentum space. For the opposite cases of the PTF rapidly decreasing as
a function of transfer momenta (when large transfer momenta are strongly
suppressed), the developed approach allows us to consider strongly
non-equilibrium cases of the system evolution. The stationary and
non-stationary solutions are studied. As an example, the particular case of the
Boltzmann-type PT-function for collisions of heavy and light particles with the
determined (prescribed) distribution function, which can be strongly
non-equilibrium, is considered within the proposed general approach. The
appropriate diffusion and friction coefficients are found. The Einstein
relation between the friction and diffusion coefficients is shown to be
violated in these cases.Comment: 23 pages, 0 figure

### Quantum nature of the critical points of substances

Thermodynamics of chemical elements, based on the two-component
electron-nuclear plasma model shows that the critical parameters for the
liquid-vapor transition are the quantum values for which the classical limit is
absent.Comment: 4 pages, no figure

### Inhomogeneity of dusty crystals and plasma diagnostics

Real dusty crystals are inhomogeneous due to the presence of external forces. We suggest approximations for calculations of different types of inhomogeneous DC (chain and DC with a few slabs) in the equilibrium state. The results are in a good agreement with experimental results and can be used as an effective diagnostic method for many dusty systems

### On anomalous diffusion in a plasma in velocity space

The problem of anomalous diffusion in momentum space is considered for
plasma-like systems on the basis of a new collision integral, which is
appropriate for consideration of the probability transition function (PTF) with
long tails in momentum space. The generalized Fokker-Planck equation for
description of diffusion (in momentum space) of particles (ions, grains etc.)
in a stochastic system of light particles (electrons, or electrons and ions,
respectively) is applied to the evolution of the momentum particle distribution
in a plasma. In a plasma the developed approach is also applicable to the
diffusion of particles with an arbitrary mass relation, due to the small
characteristic momentum transfer. The cases of an exponentially decreasing in
momentum space (including the Boltzmann-like) kernel in the PT-function, as
well as the more general kernels, which create the anomalous diffusion in
velocity space due to the long tail in the PT-function, are considered.
Effective friction and diffusion coefficients for plasma-like systems are
found.Comment: 18 pages, no figure

### Study of charge collection and noise in non-irradiated and irradiated silicon detectors

The large collection and noise were studied in non-irradiated and irradiated silicon detectors as a function of temperature (T), shaping time (0) and fluence , up to about 1,2 x 10(14) protons per cm2 for minimum-ionizing electrons yielded by a 106 Ru source. The noise of irradiated detectors is found to be dominted for short shaping times (Âľ50ns) by a series noise compo- nent, while for longer shaping times (80ns) a parallel noise component (correlated with the reverse current) prevails. For non-irradiated detectors, where the reverse current is three orders of magnetude smaller compared with irradiated detectors, the series noises dominates over the whole range of shaping times investigated (20-150ns). A signal degradation is observed for irradiated detectors. However, the signal ca be distinguished from noise, even after a fluence of about 1.2 x10(14) protons per cm2, at a temperature of 6Ă¸C and with a shaping time tipical of rge LHC inter-bunch crossing time (20-30ns). The measurements of the signal as a function of voltage shows that irradiated detectors depleted at 50% of the full depletion voltage can still provide a measurable signal-to-noise ratio

### Identity of electrons and ionization equilibrium

It is perhaps appropriate that, in a year marking the 90th anniversary of
Meghnad Saha seminal paper (1920), new developments should call fresh attention
to the problem of ionization equilibrium in gases. Ionization equilibrium is
considered in the simplest "physical" model for an electronic subsystem of
matter in a rarefied state, consisting of one localized electronic state in
each nucleus and delocalized electronic states considered as free ones. It is
shown that, despite the qualitative agreement, there is a significant
quantitative difference from the results of applying the Saha formula to the
degree of ionization. This is caused by the fact that the Saha formula
corresponds to the "chemical" model of matter.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figure

### True Dielectric and Ideal Conductor in Theory of the Dielectric Function for Coulomb System

On the basis of the exact relations the general formula for the static
dielectric permittivity e(q,0) for Coulomb system is found in the region of
small wave vectors q. The obtained formuladescribes the dielectric function
e(q,0) of the Coulomb system in both states in the "metallic" state and in the
"dielectric" one. The parameter which determines possible states of the Coulomb
system - from the "true" dielectric till the "ideal" conductor is found. The
exact relation for the pair correlation function for two-component system of
electrons and nuclei g_ei(r) is found for the arbitrary thermodynamic
parameters.Comment: 5 pages, no figure

### Analysis of linear and nonlinear conductivity of plasma-like systems on the basis of the Fokker-Planck equation

The problems of high linear conductivity in an electric field, as well as
nonlinear conductivity, are considered for plasma-like systems.
First, we recall several observations of nonlinear fast charge transport in
dusty plasma, molecular chains, lattices, conducting polymers and semiconductor
layers. Exploring the role of noise we introduce the generalized Fokker-Planck
equation.
Second, one-dimensional models are considered on the basis of the
Fokker-Planck equation with active and passive velocity-dependent friction
including an external electrical field. On this basis it is possible to find
the linear and nonlinear conductivities for electrons and other charged
particles in a homogeneous external field. It is shown that the velocity
dependence of the friction coefficient can lead to an essential increase of the
electron average velocity and the corresponding conductivity in comparison with
the usual model of constant friction, which is described by the Drude-type
conductivity. Applications including novel forms of controlled charge transfer
and non-Ohmic conductance are discussed.Comment: 14 pages with 6 figure

### Kinetic theory of Jeans instability

Kinetic treatment of the Jeans gravitational instability, with collisions taken into account, is presented. The initial-value problem for the distribution function which obeys the kinetic equation, with the collision integral conserving the number of particles, is solved. Dispersion relation is obtained and analyzed. New modes are found. Collisions are shown not to affect the Jeans instability criterion. Although the instability growth rate diminishes, the collisions they cannot quench the instability. However, the oscillation spectrum is modified significantly: even in the neighborhood of the threshold frequency =0 (separating stable and unstable modes) the spectrum of oscillations can strongly depend on the collision frequency. Propagating (rather than aperiodic) modes are also found. These modes, however, are strongly damped

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