102 research outputs found

    Antibodies against C1q in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

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    The first component of the classical pathway of complement (C1q) is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This view is based on the observation that a substantial number of patients with SLE develop hypocomplementemia with depletion of the classical pathway components, and C1q has been shown to play an important role in the clearance of immune complexes and apoptotic bodies. In addition, homozygous C1q deficiency is the strongest disease susceptibility gene for the development of SLE that has been characterised in humans. However, most SLE patients have no primary complement deficiency. Hypocomplementemia in SLE patients is a secondary event and often associated with antibodies against C1q (anti-C1q). Although anti-C1q have been found in a number of distinct autoimmune disorders, they are best described in patients with SLE where they strongly correlate with renal flares. Current data suggest that the occurrence of anti-C1q in SLE patients is necessary but not sufficient for the development of proliferative lupus nephritis, suggesting an interference with the normal function of the complement syste

    Targeting thromboinflammation in COVID-19 - A narrative review of the potential of C1 inhibitor to prevent disease progression.

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    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a clinical spectrum ranging from asymptomatic carriers to critically ill patients with complications including thromboembolic events, myocardial injury, multisystemic inflammatory syndromes and death. Since the beginning of the pandemic several therapeutic options emerged, with a multitude of randomized trials, changing the medical landscape of COVID-19. The effect of various monoclonal antibodies, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulation drugs have been studied, and to some extent, implemented into clinical practice. In addition, a multitude of trials improved the understanding of the disease and emerging evidence points towards a significant role of the complement system, kallikrein-kinin, and contact activation system as drivers of disease in severe COVID-19. Despite their involvement in COVID-19, treatments targeting these plasmatic cascades have neither been systematically studied nor introduced into clinical practice, and randomized studies with regards to these treatments are scarce. Given the multiple-action, multiple-target nature of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH), the natural inhibitor of these cascades, this drug may be an interesting candidate to prevent disease progression and combat thromboinflammation in COVID-19. This narrative review will discuss the current evidence with regards to the involvement of these plasmatic cascades as well as endothelial cells in COVID-19. Furthermore, we summarize the evidence of C1-INH in COVID-19 and potential benefits and pitfalls of C1-INH treatment in COVID-19

    Kombiniert-heterozygote Defizienz von Komplementfaktor C7 bei einerPatientin mit rezidivierender Meningitis

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    Zusammenfassung: Hintergrund:: Die Assoziation zwischen Komplementdefizienzen, insbesondere von Komponenten der terminalen Kaskade (C5-C9), und dem Auftreten von Meningokokkeninfekten und bakteriellen Meningitiden ist gut beschrieben. Fallbeschreibung:: In dem vorliegenden Fallbericht wird dabei erstmals ein kombiniert-heterozygoter Defekt im C7-Gen beschrieben, der noch eine Restproduktion von C7 erlaubte. Diese Restproduktion reichte jedoch nicht aus, um vor rezidivierenden Meningitiden zu schützen. Schlussfolgerung:: Der Fallbericht zeigt erneut den Stellenwert der Komplementdiagnostik bei Patienten mit Meningokokkeninfekt und die Notwendigkeit, auch Patienten mit reduzierter, aber noch messbarer Komplementaktivität einer weiteren Abklärung auf eine Komplementdefizienz zuzuführe

    A patient with SLE-associated thrombotic microangiopathy and non-neutralizing antibodies against ADAMTS13

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    In this case report, we describe for the first time a patient with thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura (TTP) accompanying highly active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that was associated with non-neutralizing antibodies against the plasma metalloprotease ADAMTS13. Those non-neutralizing antibodies could have been the cause of ADAMTS13 depletion and consecutive TTP. More extensive analyses are required to determine the prevalence as well as the clinical relevance of non-neutralizing antibodies against ADAMTS13 in SLE patient

    Influence of functional deficiency of complement mannose-binding lectin on outcome of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention

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    Aims Experimental data point towards a favourable effect of low serum concentrations of complement mannose-binding lectin (MBL) on myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. As comparable data on the role of MBL in human I/R injury is lacking, we investigated the influence of low serum MBL concentrations on mortality of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and results Mannose-binding lectin was determined in 890 acute STEMI patients that were prospectively recruited in the APEX-AMI trial. This trial had a primary endpoint of death through Day 30 and secondary endpoints of death through Day 90 and the composite of death, cardiogenic shock, or congestive heart failure (CHF) through Days 30 and 90. Samples were taken immediately before PCI and the analysis of MBL limited to patients having received placebo. Patients with serum MBL levels of or below 100 ng/mL were considered to be functionally deficient. Of the 890 patients, 127 had functional MBL deficiency (14.3%). Characteristics of patients with MBL deficiency and those with MBL levels >100 ng/mL did not differ. In patients with MBL deficiency, there was 1 death (0.79%) compared with 42 deaths (5.51%) in patients with MBL levels >100 ng/mL (P = 0.0233) representing an absolute and relative lower mortality in MBL deficient patients of 4.7 and 85%, respectively. Functional MBL deficiency, however, was not associated with decreased risk of the combined endpoints of death and shock or death, shock, and CHF, respectively. Conclusion Functional deficiency of complement MBL is associated with reduced mortality in patients with STEMI undergoing PCI. This unique finding suggests that a component of the innate immune system affects mortality in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT0009163

    Anti-C1q autoantibodies do not correlate with the occurrence or severity of experimental lupus nephritis

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    Background. In systemic lupus erythematosus patients, a strong association between the occurrence of antibodies against complement C1q (anti-C1q) and lupus nephritis can be observed. However, the predictive value of anti-C1q titres for a renal flare remains to be determined. Increasing titres of anti-C1q before the occurrence of clinical apparent nephritis might not only serve as a clinical parameter but also indicate a direct pathogenic mechanism of anti-C1q. Methods. The aim of this study was to analyse the occurrence of anti-C1q before the onset of experimental lupus nephritis in MRL/MpJ +/+ mice and to correlate anti-C1q titres with the type and severity of glomerulonephritis (GN) developing at advanced age. Results. As judged by a number of morphological and immunological analyses, GN in MRL/MpJ +/+ mice resembled human lupus nephritis and occurred in variable degrees of severity. We also observed an abundant and early presence of anti-C1q. However, anti-C1q neither correlated with overall survival nor with any histological marker of severity of GN. Conclusions. The absence of a correlation between the presence of anti-C1q and the occurrence of experimental lupus nephritis contradicts the hypothesis that anti-C1q are pathogenic. However, different pathogenic mechanisms of experimental lupus nephritis and human proliferative lupus nephritis cannot be exclude

    Mannose-Binding Lectin Deficiency Is Associated With Smaller Infarction Size and Favorable Outcome in Ischemic Stroke Patients

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    BACKGROUND: The Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of complement plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury after experimental ischemic stroke. As comparable data in human ischemic stroke are limited, we investigated in more detail the association of MBL deficiency with infarction volume and functional outcome in a large cohort of patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis or conservative treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a post hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study, admission MBL concentrations were determined in 353 consecutive patients with an acute ischemic stroke of whom 287 and 66 patients received conservative and thrombolytic treatment, respectively. Stroke severity, infarction volume, and functional outcome were studied in relation to MBL concentrations at presentation to the emergency department. MBL levels on admission were not influenced by the time from symptom onset to presentation (p = 0.53). In the conservative treatment group patients with mild strokes at presentation, small infarction volumes or favorable outcomes after three months demonstrated 1.5 to 2.6-fold lower median MBL levels (p = 0.025, p = 0.0027 and p = 0.046, respectively) compared to patients with more severe strokes. Moreover, MBL deficient patients (>100 ng/ml) were subject to a considerably decreased risk of an unfavorable outcome three months after ischemic stroke (adjusted odds ratio 0.38, p>0.05) and showed smaller lesion volumes (mean size 0.6 vs. 18.4 ml, p = 0.0025). In contrast, no association of MBL concentration with infarction volume or functional outcome was found in the thrombolysis group. However, the small sample size limits the significance of this observation. CONCLUSIONS: MBL deficiency is associated with smaller cerebral infarcts and favorable outcome in patients receiving conservative treatment. Our data suggest an important role of the lectin pathway in the pathophysiology of cerebral I/R injury and might pave the way for new therapeutic interventions

    Epitope-Specific Anti-C1q Autoantibodies in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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    OBJECTIVE: In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) complement C1q is frequently targeted by autoantibodies (anti-C1q), that correlate best with active renal disease. Anti-C1q bind to largely unknown epitopes on the collagen-like region (CLR) of this highly functional molecule. Here we aimed at exploring the role of epitope-specific anti-C1q in SLE patients. METHODS: First, 22 sera of SLE patients, healthy controls and anti-C1q positive patients without SLE were screened for anti-C1q epitopes by a PEPperMAP(®) microarray, expressing CLR of C1q derived peptides with one amino acid (AA) shift in different lengths and conformations. Afterwards, samples of 378 SLE patients and 100 healthy blood donors were analyzed for antibodies against the identified epitopes by peptide-based ELISA. Relationships between peptide-specific autoantibodies and SLE disease manifestations were explored by logistic regression models. RESULTS: The epitope mapping showed increased IgG binding to three peptides of the C1q A- and three of the C1q B-chain. In subsequent peptide-based ELISAs, SLE sera showed significantly higher binding to two N-terminally located C1q A-chain peptides than controls (p < 0.0001), but not to the other peptides. While anti-C1q were associated with a broad spectrum of disease manifestations, some of the peptide-antibodies were associated with selected disease manifestations, and antibodies against the N-terminal C1q A-chain showed a stronger discrimination between SLE and controls than conventional anti-C1q. CONCLUSION: In this large explorative study anti-C1q correlate with SLE overall disease activity. In contrast, peptide-antibodies are associated with specific aspects of the disease suggesting epitope-specific effects of anti-C1q in patients with SLE

    High prevalence of anti-C1q antibodies in biopsy-proven active lupus nephritis

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    Background. Anti-C1q antibodies (anti-C1q) have been shown to correlate positively with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis. Several clinical studies indicated a high negative predictive value, suggesting that active lupus nephritis is rarely seen in patients with no anti-C1q. However, the true prevalence of anti-C1q at the time of active lupus nephritis has not been well established. The aim of this study was to determine prospectively the prevalence of anti-C1q in proven active lupus nephritis at the time of the renal biopsy. Methods. In this prospective multi-centre study, we investigated adult SLE patients undergoing renal biopsy for suspected active lupus nephritis. Serum samples were taken at the time of the biopsy and analysed for the presence of anti-C1q in a standardized way. The activity of lupus nephritis was classified according to the renal histology. Biopsies were also analysed for the presence of glomerular IgG, C1q and C3 deposition. Results. A total of 38 patients fulfilling at least 4/11 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for the diagnosis of SLE were included. Out of this, 36 patients had proliferative (class II, III or IV) and two had class V lupus nephritis. All but one patient with proliferative lupus nephritis were positive for anti-C1q (97.2%) compared with the 35% of control SLE patients with inactive lupus nephritis and 25% of SLE patients without lupus nephritis ever. All patients were positive for glomerular C1q (36/36) and 37/38 patients had glomerular IgG deposits. Anti-C1q strongly decreased during successful treatment. Conclusions. Anti-C1q have a very high prevalence in biopsy-proven active lupus nephritis, thus a negative test result almost excludes active nephritis. The data support the hypothesis of a pathogenic role of anti-C1q in lupus nephriti

    Association of lectin pathway proteins with intra-abdominal Candida infection in high-risk surgical intensive-care unit patients. A prospective cohort study within the fungal infection network of Switzerland

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    OBJECTIVES Human studies on the role of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) in patients with invasive candidiasis have yielded conflicting results. We investigated the influence of MBL and other lectin pathway proteins on Candida colonization and intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC) in a cohort of high-risk patients. METHODS Prospective observational cohort study of 89 high-risk intensive-care unit (ICU) patients. Levels of lectin pathway proteins at study entry and six MBL2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed by sandwich-type immunoassays and genotyping, respectively, and correlated with development of heavy Candida colonization (corrected colonization index (CCI) ≥0.4) and occurrence of IAC during a 4-week period. RESULTS Within 4 weeks after inclusion a CCI ≥0.4 and IAC was observed in 47% and 38% of patients respectively. Neither serum levels of MBL, ficolin-1, -2, -3, MASP-2 or collectin liver 1 nor MBL2 genotypes were associated with a CCI ≥0.4. Similarly, none of the analyzed proteins was found to be associated with IAC with the exception of lower MBL levels (HR 0.74, p = 0.02) at study entry. However, there was no association of MBL deficiency (<0.5 μg/ml), MBL2 haplo- or genotypes with IAC. CONCLUSION Lectin pathway protein levels and MBL2 genotype investigated in this study were not associated with heavy Candida colonization or IAC in a cohort of high-risk ICU patients
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