297 research outputs found

    Deep Learning fast inference on FPGA for CMS Muon Level-1 Trigger studies

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    With the advent of the High-Luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), the instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is expected to increase up to ≈7.5⋅1034cm−2s−1. Therefore, new strategies for data acquisition and processing will be necessary, in preparation for the higher number of signals produced inside the detectors. In the context of an upgrade of the trigger system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), new reconstruction algorithms, aiming for an improved performance, are being developed. For what concerns the online tracking of muons, one of the figures that is being improved is the accuracy of the transverse momentum (pT) measurement. Machine Learning techniques have already been considered as a promising solution for this problem, as they make possible, with the use of more information collected by the detector, to build models able to predict with an improved precision the pT. This work aims to implement such models onto an FPGA, which promises smaller latency with respect to traditional inference algorithms running on CPU, an important aspect for a trigger system. The analysis carried out in this work will use data obtained through Monte Carlo simulations of muons crossing the barrel region of the CMS muon chambers, and compare the results with the pT assigned by the current CMS Level 1 Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) trigger system

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE – on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation

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    One of the ways in which legal services are financed, and indeed shaped, is through private insurance arrangement. Two contrasting types of legal expenses insurance contracts (LEI) seem to dominate in Europe: before the event (BTE) and after the event (ATE) legal expenses insurance. Notwithstanding institutional differences between different legal systems, BTE and ATE insurance arrangements may be instrumental if government policy is geared towards strengthening a market-oriented system of financing access to justice for individuals and business. At the same time, emphasizing the role of a private industry as a keeper of the gates to justice raises issues of accountability and transparency, not readily reconcilable with demands of competition. Moreover, multiple actors (clients, lawyers, courts, insurers) are involved, causing behavioural dynamics which are not easily predicted or influenced. Against this background, this paper looks into BTE and ATE arrangements by analysing the particularities of BTE and ATE arrangements currently available in some European jurisdictions and by painting a picture of their respective markets and legal contexts. This allows for some reflection on the performance of BTE and ATE providers as both financiers and keepers. Two issues emerge from the analysis that are worthy of some further reflection. Firstly, there is the problematic long-term sustainability of some ATE products. Secondly, the challenges faced by policymakers that would like to nudge consumers into voluntarily taking out BTE LEI

    CMS physics technical design report : Addendum on high density QCD with heavy ions