1,008 research outputs found

    Biocompatible chitosan-functionalized upconverting nanocomposites

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    Simultaneous integration of photon emission and biocompatibility into nanoparticles is an interesting strategy to develop applications of advanced optical materials. In this work, we present the synthesis of biocompatible optical nanocomposites from the combination of near-infrared luminescent lanthanide nanoparticles and water-soluble chitosan. NaYF4:Yb,Er upconverting nanocrystal guests and water-soluble chitosan hosts are prepared and integrated together into biofunctional optical composites. The control of aqueous dissolution, gelation, assembly, and drying of NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocolloids and chitosan liquids allowed us to design novel optical structures of spongelike aerogels and beadlike microspheres. Well-defined shape and near-infrared response lead upconverting nanocrystals to serve as photon converters to couple with plasmonic gold (Au) nanoparticles. Biocompatible chitosan-stabilized Au/NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocomposites are prepared to show their potential use in biomedicine as we find them exhibiting a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 0.58 mg mL–1 for chitosan-stabilized Au/NaYF4:Yb,Er nanorods versus 0.24 mg mL–1 for chitosan-stabilized NaYF4:Yb,Er after 24 h. As a result of their low cytotoxicity and upconverting response, these novel materials hold promise to be interesting for biomedicine, analytical sensing, and other applications

    Secondary Network Throughput Optimization of NOMA Cognitive Radio Networks Under Power and Secure Constraints

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    Recently, the combination of cognitive radio networks with the nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA) approach has emerged as a viable option for not only improving spectrum usage but also supporting large numbers of wireless communication connections. However, cognitive NOMA networks are unstable and vulnerable because multiple devices operate on the same frequency band. To overcome this drawback, many techniques have been proposed, such as optimal power allocation and interference cancellation. In this paper, we consider an approach by which the secondary transmitter (STx) is able to find the best licensed channel to send its confidential message to the secondary receivers (SRxs) by using the NOMA technique. To combat eavesdroppers and achieve reasonable performance, a power allocation policy that satisfies both the outage probability (OP) constraint of primary users and the security constraint of secondary users is optimized. The closed-form formulas for the OP at the primary base station and the leakage probability for the eavesdropper are obtained with imperfect channel state information. Furthermore, the throughput of the secondary network is analyzed to evaluate the system performance. Based on that, two algorithms (i.e., the continuous genetic algorithm (CGA) for CR NOMA (CGA-CRN) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) for CR NOMA (PSO-CRN)), are applied to optimize the throughput of the secondary network. These optimization algorithms guarantee not only the performance of the primary users but also the security constraints of the secondary users. Finally, simulations are presented to validate our research results and provide insights into how various factors affect system performance

    Investigating the leaching performance of ferric chloride solution for metallic alloys resulting from reduction smelting of spent lithium-ion batteries

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    Smelting reduction of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) produces metallic alloys containing Co, Ni, Cu, Mn, and Fe. Finding suitable reagents in terms of efficiency, economics, and friendly environment for the dissolution of these metals from the alloys is very important for the recovery process of the metals. In this work, the employment of ferric chloride solution for the dissolution of the metals from the alloys was studied. The effect of parameters like FeCl3 concentration, temperature, time, and pulp density on the leaching efficiency of metals was investigated. Our results indicate that ferric ions in the leaching solutions act as oxidizing agents for the dissolution of the metals, while chloride anions as ligands for the formation of the complexes of the dissolved metal ions. The best conditions for the dissolution of full metals were 0.7 mol/L FeCl3, 12.5 g/L pulp density, 22oC, and 30 min. In comparison with HCl or H2SO4 leaching agents, ferric chloride shows some advantages like a decrease in the dosage of acids and oxidizing agents, fast reaction kinetics, and low energy consumption. With its advantages, ferric chloride solution is considered a potential leaching agent in the recovery process of valuable metals from spent LIBs

    Robust Reflection Detection and Removal in Rainy Conditions using LAB and HSV Color Spaces

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    In the field of traffic monitoring systems, shadows are the main causes of errors in computer vision-based vehicle detection and classification. A great number of  research have been carried out to detect and remove shadows. However, these research works only focused on solving shadow problems in daytime traffic scenes. Up to now, far too little attention has been paid to the problem caused by vehicles’ reflections in rainy conditions. Unlike shadows in the daytime, which are homogeneous gray shades, reflection shadows are inhomogeneous regions of different colors. This characteristic makes reflections harder to detect and remove. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to develop a reflection detection and removal method from single images or video. Reflections are detected by determining a combination of L and B channels from LAB color space and H channel from HSV color space. The reflection removal method is performed by determining the optimal intensity of reflected areas so that they match with neighbor regions. The advantage of our method is that all reflected areas are removed without affecting vehicles’ textures or details


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    Lithofacies and paleogeographical characteristics of late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits are related to three sedimentary system tracts: Lowstand systems tract (LST) corresponds to the low regressive phase from 50 ka BP to 18 ka BP. The sedimentary accumulative space is situated from the boundary of weathering crust to the 100 m water depth. In Ba Lat rivermouth area, the lowstand systems tract is dominated by the alluvial silty sand facies group (arLST); Transgressive systems tract (TST) in Ba Lat rivermouth area constitutes a lithofacies section including three facies in upward direction as follows: (1) Transgressive alluvial silty - sand facies (atTST). (2) Transgressive estuary sandy - mud facies (amtTST). (3) Lagoonal maximum transgressive greenish clay facies (mtTST); Highstand systems tract (HST) in the downstream Red river delta area constitutes a deltaic plain structure consisting of three parts: High subaerial delta, low subaerial delta and subaqueous delta, which had been formed from 5 ka BP.Đặc điểm tuớng đá - cổ địa lý trầm tích Pleistocen muộn-Holocen khu vực cửa sông Ba Lạt gắn liền với ba miền hệ thống trầm tích: Miền hệ thống trầm tích biển thấp (LST) tương ứng với pha biển thoái thấp từ 50.000 năm BP đến 18.000 năm cách ngày nay. Không gian tích tụ của miền hệ thống này được giới hạn từ ranh giới miền xâm thực (vỏ phong hóa) đến độ sâu 100 m nước. Trong khu vực cửa Ba Lạt nhóm tướng aluvi biển thoái thống trị (arLST); Miền hệ thống trầm tích biển tiến (TST) trong khu vực cửa sông Ba Lạt cấu thành một mặt cắt gồm ba tướng từ dưới lên: (1) tướng cát bột aluvi biển tiến (atTST), (2) tướng bùn cát cửa sông biển tiến (amtTST) và (3) tướng sét xám xanh vũng vịnh biển tiến cực đại (mtTST); Miền hệ thống trầm tích biển cao (HST) trong khu vực hạ lưu châu thổ sông Hồng tạo nên một cấu trúc đồng bằng châu thổ bao gồm: Đồng bằng châu thổ cao, Đồng bằng châu thổ thấp và châu thổ ngập nước có tuổi từ 5.000 năm BP