12,877 research outputs found

    Viscosity solutions of general viscous Hamilton-Jacobi equations

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    We present comparison principles, Lipschitz estimates and study state constraints problems for degenerate, second-order Hamilton-Jacobi equations.Comment: 35 pages, minor revisio

    Ground state fluctuations in finite Fermi and Bose systems

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    We consider a small and fixed number of fermions (bosons) in a trap. The ground state of the system is defined at T=0. For a given excitation energy, there are several ways of exciting the particles from this ground state. We formulate a method for calculating the number fluctuation in the ground state using microcanonical counting, and implement it for small systems of noninteracting fermions as well as bosons in harmonic confinement. This exact calculation for fluctuation, when compared with canonical ensemble averaging, gives considerably different results, specially for fermions. This difference is expected to persist at low excitation even when the fermion number in the trap is large.Comment: 20 pages (including 1 appendix), 3 postscript figures. An error was found in one section of the paper. The corrected version is updated on Sep/05/200

    A lagrangian approach to weakly coupled Hamilton-Jacobi systems

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    We study a class of weakly coupled Hamilton‚ÄďJacobi systems with a specific aim to perform a qualitative analysis in the spirit of weak KAM theory. Our main achievement is the definition of a family of related action functionals containing the Lagrangians obtained by duality from the Hamiltonians of the system. We use them to characterize, by means of a suitable estimate, all the subsolutions of the system, and to explicitly represent some subsolutions enjoying an additional maximality property. A crucial step for our analysis is to put the problem in a suitable random frame. Only some basic knowledge of measure theory is required, and the presentation is accessible to readers without background in probability

    Effect of the green-emitting CaF2:Ce3+,Tb3+ phosphor particles’ size on color rendering index and color quality scale of the in-cup packaging multichip white LEDs

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    In this paper, we investigate the effect of the green-emitting CaF2:Ce (3+), Tb (3+) phosphor particle's size on the color rendering index (CRI) and the color quality scale (CQS) of the in-cup packaging multichip white LEDs (MCW-LEDs). For this purpose, 7000K and 8500K in-cup packaging MCW-LEDs is simulated by the commercial software Light Tools. Moreover, scattering process in the phosphor layers is investigated by using Mie Theory with Mat Lab software. Finally, the research results show that the green-emitting CaF2: Ce (3+), Tb (3+) phosphor's size crucially influences on the CRI and CQS. From that point of view, CaF2: Ce (3+), Tb (3+) can be proposed as a potential practical direction for manufacturing the in-cup packaging phosphor WLEDs.Web of Science13235134

    Euclidean-signature Supergravities, Dualities and Instantons

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    We study the Euclidean-signature supergravities that arise by compactifying D=11 supergravity or type IIB supergravity on a torus that includes the time direction. We show that the usual T-duality relation between type IIA and type IIB supergravities compactified on a spatial circle no longer holds if the reduction is performed on the time direction. Thus there are two inequivalent Euclidean-signature nine-dimensional maximal supergravities. They become equivalent upon further spatial compactification to D=8. We also show that duality symmetries of Euclidean-signature supergravities allow the harmonic functions of any single-charge or multi-charge instanton to be rescaled and shifted by constant factors. Combined with the usual diagonal dimensional reduction and oxidation procedures, this allows us to use the duality symmetries to map any single-charge or multi-charge p-brane soliton, or any intersection, into its near-horizon regime. Similar transformations can also be made on non-extremal p-branes. We also study the structures of duality multiplets of instanton and (D-3)-brane solutions.Comment: Latex, 50 pages, typos corrected and references adde
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