256 research outputs found

    Early Lessons Learned from Building Local Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems in Texas

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    In 2010, the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program (MIECHV), provided states with the opportunity to apply for funding to build and expand evidence-based home visiting programs in their states and to incorporate community collaboration components, referred to as early childhood comprehensive systems (ECCS). For Texas, this was the first opportunity to build a statewide program of home visiting services that would be incorporated within local comprehensive early childhood systems to support the early development of Texas children and their families. This paper highlights the lessons learned from the first year of implementing a comprehensive system of early childhood services in the Texas Home Visiting Program (THVP). Findings from this first year can inform any effort to build comprehensive and accountable communities for children. By the end of the first year, each of the seven Texas communities taking part in THVP had made significant progress building their ECCS. Prior experience building coalitions in the community facilitated early, but not necessarily long-term, success. Communities required flexibility to build an ECCS that fit their unique contexts, but they also required strong support and technical assistance to sustain their coalitions. Additionally, the availability of local-level data to inform the development of coalition goals and action plans was critical to recruiting and sustaining membership. Moving forward, communities will begin to assess and promote the sustainability of their ECCS. Sustainability will be critical to reaching the ultimate goal of providing a seamless delivery of health and human services to ensure that all children are ready for school

    Differences in coronary flow and myocardial metabolism at rest and during pacing between patients with obstructive and patients with nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

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    Fifty patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy underwent invasive study of coronary and myocardial hemodynamics in the basal state and during the stress of pacing. The 23 patients with basal obstruction (average left ventricular outflow gradient, 77 ┬▒ 33 mm Hg; left ventricular systolic pressure, 196 ┬▒ 33 mm Hg, mean ┬▒ 1 SD) had significantly lower coronary resistance (0.85 ┬▒ 0.18 versus 1.32 ┬▒ 0.44 mm Hg min/ml, p < 0.001) and higher basal coronary flow (106 ┬▒ 20 versus 80 ┬▒ 25 ml/min, p < 0.001) in the anterior left ventricle, associated with higher regional myocardial oxygen consumption (12.4 ┬▒ 3.6 versus 8.9 ┬▒ 3.3 ml oxygen/min, p < 0.001) compared with the 27 patients without obstruction (mean left ventricular systolic pressure 134 ┬▒ 18 mm Hg, p < 0.001).Myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow were also significantly higher at paced heart rates of 100 and 130 beats/min (the anginal threshold for 41 of the 50 patients) in patients with obstruction compared with those without. In patients with obstruction, transmural coronary flow reserve was exhausted at a heart rate of 130 beats/min; higher heart rates resulted in more severe metabolic evidence of ischemia with all patients experiencing chest pain, associated with an actual increase in coronary resistance. Patients without obstruction also demonstrated evidence of ischemia at heart rates of 130 and 150 beats/min, with 25 of 27 patients experiencing chest pain. In this group, myocardial ischemia occurred at significantly lower coronary flow, higher coronary resistance and lower myocardial oxygen consumption, suggesting more severely impaired flow delivery in this group compared with those with obstruction. Abnormalities in myocardial oxygen extraction and marked elevation in filling pressures during stress were noted in both groups.Thus, obstruction to left ventricular outflow is associated with high left ventricular systolic pressure and oxygen consumption and therefore has important pathogenetic importance to the precipitation of ischemia in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Patients without obstruction may have greater impairment in coronary flow delivery during stress

    Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness in Reducing Head, Face and Brain Injuries by State and Helmet Law

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    Background: Despite evidence that motorcycle helmets reduce morbidity and mortality, helmet laws and rates of helmet use vary by state in the U.S. Methods: We pooled data from eleven states: five with universal laws requiring all motorcyclists to wear a helmet, and six with partial laws requiring only a subset of motorcyclists to wear a helmet. Data were combined in the Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System\u27s General Use Model and included motorcycle crash records probabilistically linked to emergency department and inpatient discharges for years 2005-2008. Medical outcomes were compared between partial and universal helmet law settings. We estimated adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for head, facial, traumatic brain, and moderate to severe head/facial injuries associated with helmet use within each helmet law setting using generalized log-binomial regression. Results: Reported helmet use was higher in universal law states (88 % vs. 42 %). Median charges, adjusted for inflation and differences in state-incomes, were higher in partial law states (emergency department 1987vs.1987 vs. 1443; inpatient 31,506vs.31,506 vs. 25,949). Injuries to the head and face, including traumatic brain injuries, were more common in partial law states. Effectiveness estimates of helmet use were higher in partial law states (adjusted-RR (CI) of head injury: 2.1 (1.9-2.2) partial law single vehicle; 1.4 (1.2, 1.6) universal law single vehicle; 1.8 (1.6-2.0) partial law multi-vehicle; 1.2 (1.1-1.4) universal law multi-vehicle). Conclusions: Medical charges and rates of head, facial, and brain injuries among motorcyclists were lower in universal law states. Helmets were effective in reducing injury in both helmet law settings; lower effectiveness estimates were observed in universal law states

    Post-Acute Care Payment Reform Demonstration: Final Report Volume 4 of 4

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    This is the Final Report for the Post-Acute Care Payment Reform Demonstration (PAC-PRD), authorized by section 5008 of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, Public Law 109-171. The report has 12 sections, which are divided into four volumes: Volume 1: Executive Summary. Volume 2: Sections 1-4 (Section 1: Introduction; Section 2: Underlying Issues of the PAC-PRD Initiating Legislation; Section 3: Developing Standardized Measurement Approaches: The Continuity Assessment Record and Evaluation (CARE); Section 4: Demonstration Methods and Data Collection) Volume 3: Sections 5-6 (Section 5: Framework for Analysis; Section 6: Factors Associated with Hospital Discharge Destination) Volume 4: Sections 7-12; References (Section 7: Outcomes: Hospital Readmissions; Section 8: Outcomes: Functional Status; Section 9: Determinants of Resource Intensity: Methods and Analytic Sample Description; Section 10: Determinants of Resource Intensity: Lessons from the CART Analysis; Section 11: Determinants of Resource Intensity: Multivariate Regression Results; Section 12: Conclusions and Review of Findings; References

    Post-Acute Care Payment Reform Demonstration: Final Report Volume 3 of 4

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    This is the Final Report for the Post-Acute Care Payment Reform Demonstration (PAC-PRD), authorized by section 5008 of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, Public Law 109-171. The report has 12 sections, which are divided into four volumes: Volume 1: Executive Summary. Volume 2: Sections 1-4 (Section 1: Introduction; Section 2: Underlying Issues of the PAC-PRD Initiating Legislation; Section 3: Developing Standardized Measurement Approaches: The Continuity Assessment Record and Evaluation (CARE); Section 4: Demonstration Methods and Data Collection) Volume 3: Sections 5-6 (Section 5: Framework for Analysis; Section 6: Factors Associated with Hospital Discharge Destination) Volume 4: Sections 7-12; References (Section 7: Outcomes: Hospital Readmissions; Section 8: Outcomes: Functional Status; Section 9: Determinants of Resource Intensity: Methods and Analytic Sample Description; Section 10: Determinants of Resource Intensity: Lessons from the CART Analysis; Section 11: Determinants of Resource Intensity: Multivariate Regression Results; Section 12: Conclusions and Review of Findings; References

    Post-Acute Care Payment Reform Demonstration: Final Report Volume 2 of 4

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    This is the Final Report for the Post-Acute Care Payment Reform Demonstration (PAC-PRD), authorized by section 5008 of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, Public Law 109-171. The report has 12 sections, which are divided into four volumes: Volume 1: Executive Summary. Volume 2: Sections 1-4 (Section 1: Introduction; Section 2: Underlying Issues of the PAC-PRD Initiating Legislation; Section 3: Developing Standardized Measurement Approaches: The Continuity Assessment Record and Evaluation (CARE); Section 4: Demonstration Methods and Data Collection) Volume 3: Sections 5-6 (Section 5: Framework for Analysis; Section 6: Factors Associated with Hospital Discharge Destination) Volume 4: Sections 7-12; References (Section 7: Outcomes: Hospital Readmissions; Section 8: Outcomes: Functional Status; Section 9: Determinants of Resource Intensity: Methods and Analytic Sample Description; Section 10: Determinants of Resource Intensity: Lessons from the CART Analysis; Section 11: Determinants of Resource Intensity: Multivariate Regression Results; Section 12: Conclusions and Review of Findings; References

    Post-Acute Care Payment Reform Demonstration: Final Report Volume 1 of 4

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    This is the Final Report for the Post-Acute Care Payment Reform Demonstration (PAC-PRD), authorized by section 5008 of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, Public Law 109-171. The report has 12 sections, which are divided into four volumes: Volume 1: Executive Summary. Volume 2: Sections 1-4 (Section 1: Introduction; Section 2: Underlying Issues of the PAC-PRD Initiating Legislation; Section 3: Developing Standardized Measurement Approaches: The Continuity Assessment Record and Evaluation (CARE); Section 4: Demonstration Methods and Data Collection) Volume 3: Sections 5-6 (Section 5: Framework for Analysis; Section 6: Factors Associated with Hospital Discharge Destination) Volume 4: Sections 7-12; References (Section 7: Outcomes: Hospital Readmissions; Section 8: Outcomes: Functional Status; Section 9: Determinants of Resource Intensity: Methods and Analytic Sample Description; Section 10: Determinants of Resource Intensity: Lessons from the CART Analysis; Section 11: Determinants of Resource Intensity: Multivariate Regression Results; Section 12: Conclusions and Review of Findings; References

    Pointing control for the SPIDER balloon-borne telescope

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    We present the technology and control methods developed for the pointing system of the SPIDER experiment. SPIDER is a balloon-borne polarimeter designed to detect the imprint of primordial gravitational waves in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. We describe the two main components of the telescope's azimuth drive: the reaction wheel and the motorized pivot. A 13 kHz PI control loop runs on a digital signal processor, with feedback from fibre optic rate gyroscopes. This system can control azimuthal speed with < 0.02 deg/s RMS error. To control elevation, SPIDER uses stepper-motor-driven linear actuators to rotate the cryostat, which houses the optical instruments, relative to the outer frame. With the velocity in each axis controlled in this way, higher-level control loops on the onboard flight computers can implement the pointing and scanning observation modes required for the experiment. We have accomplished the non-trivial task of scanning a 5000 lb payload sinusoidally in azimuth at a peak acceleration of 0.8 deg/s2^2, and a peak speed of 6 deg/s. We can do so while reliably achieving sub-arcminute pointing control accuracy.Comment: 20 pages, 12 figures, Presented at SPIE Ground-based and Airborne Telescopes V, June 23, 2014. To be published in Proceedings of SPIE Volume 914

    A review of the toxicology of oil in vertebrates : what we have learned following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

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    This research was made possible by a grant from The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative. This publication is UMCES contribution No. 6045 and Ref. No. [UMCES] CBL 2022-008. This is National Marine Mammal Foundation Contribution #314 to peer-reviewed scientific literature.In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, a number of government agencies, academic institutions, consultants, and nonprofit organizations conducted lab- and field-based research to understand the toxic effects of the oil. Lab testing was performed with a variety of fish, birds, turtles, and vertebrate cell lines (as well as invertebrates); field biologists conducted observations on fish, birds, turtles, and marine mammals; and epidemiologists carried out observational studies in humans. Eight years after the spill, scientists and resource managers held a workshop to summarize the similarities and differences in the effects of DWH oil on vertebrate taxa and to identify remaining gaps in our understanding of oil toxicity in wildlife and humans, building upon the cross-taxonomic synthesis initiated during the Natural Resource Damage Assessment. Across the studies, consistency was found in the types of toxic response observed in the different organisms. Impairment of stress responses and adrenal gland function, cardiotoxicity, immune system dysfunction, disruption of blood cells and their function, effects on locomotion, and oxidative damage were observed across taxa. This consistency suggests conservation in the mechanisms of action and disease pathogenesis. From a toxicological perspective, a logical progression of impacts was noted: from molecular and cellular effects that manifest as organ dysfunction, to systemic effects that compromise fitness, growth, reproductive potential, and survival. From a clinical perspective, adverse health effects from DWH oil spill exposure formed a suite of signs/symptomatic responses that at the highest doses/concentrations resulted in multi-organ system failure.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe
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