71 research outputs found

    NIKEL_AMC: Readout electronics for the NIKA2 experiment

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    The New Iram Kid Arrays-2 (NIKA2) instrument has recently been installed at the IRAM 30 m telescope. NIKA2 is a state-of-art instrument dedicated to mm-wave astronomy using microwave kinetic inductance detectors (KID) as sensors. The three arrays installed in the camera, two at 1.25 mm and one at 2.05 mm, feature a total of 3300 KIDs. To instrument these large array of detectors, a specifically designed electronics, composed of 20 readout boards and hosted in three microTCA crates, has been developed. The implemented solution and the achieved performances are presented in this paper. We find that multiplexing factors of up to 400 detectors per board can be achieved with homogeneous performance across boards in real observing conditions, and a factor of more than 3 decrease in volume with respect to previous generations.Comment: 21 pages; 16 figure

    Trigger and readout electronics for the STEREO experiment

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    The STEREO experiment will search for a sterile neutrino by measuring the anti-neutrino energy spectrum as a function of the distance from the source, the ILL nuclear reactor. A dedicated electronic system, hosted in a single microTCA crate, was designed for this experiment. It performs triggering in two stages with various selectable conditions, processing and readout via UDP/IPBUS of 68 photomultiplier signals continuously digitized at 250 MSPS. Additionally, for detector performance monitoring, the electronics allow on-line calibration by driving LED synchronously with the data acquisition. This paper describes the electronics requirements, architecture and the performances achieved.Comment: Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics (TWEPP) 2015, Lisboa. 9 pages, 9 figure

    The NIKA2 instrument, a dual-band kilopixel KID array for millimetric astronomy

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    NIKA2 (New IRAM KID Array 2) is a camera dedicated to millimeter wave astronomy based upon kilopixel arrays of Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID). The pathfinder instrument, NIKA, has already shown state-of-the-art detector performance. NIKA2 builds upon this experience but goes one step further, increasing the total pixel count by a factor ∼\sim10 while maintaining the same per pixel performance. For the next decade, this camera will be the resident photometric instrument of the Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique (IRAM) 30m telescope in Sierra Nevada (Spain). In this paper we give an overview of the main components of NIKA2, and describe the achieved detector performance. The camera has been permanently installed at the IRAM 30m telescope in October 2015. It will be made accessible to the scientific community at the end of 2016, after a one-year commissioning period. When this happens, NIKA2 will become a fundamental tool for astronomers worldwide.Comment: Proceedings of the 16th Low Temperature Detectors workshop. To be published in the Journal of Low Temperature Physics. 8 pages, 4 figures, 1 tabl

    Tests at 2K of the beta 0.35 spoke cryomodule prototype with the MTCA.4-based Low Level RF system prototype for the MYRRHA R&D

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    Within the framework of the first phase of MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) project, called MINERVA, IJCLab was in charge of a fully equipped Spoke cryomodule prototype development, tested at 2K. It integrates two superconducting single spoke cavities, the RF power couplers and the Cold Tuning Systems associated. On the control side, a MTCA.4-based Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) system prototype and the Software/EPICS developments has been realized by IJCLab and the SCK CEN in collaboration with the company IOxOS Technologies. The final version of the global system and the results of the tests at 2K will show with some perspectives.Comment: Poster pr\'esent\'e au LLRF Workshop 2023 (LLRF2023, arXiv : 2310.03199

    A wide field-of-view low-resolution spectrometer at APEX: Instrument design and scientific forecast

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    Context. Characterising the large-scale structure in the Universe from present times to the high redshift epoch of reionisation is essential to constraining the cosmology, the history of star formation, and reionisation, to measuring the gas content of the Universe, and to obtaining a better understanding of the physical processes that drive galaxy formation and evolution. Using the integrated emission from unresolved galaxies or gas clouds, line intensity mapping (LIM) provides a new observational window to measure the larger properties of structures. This very promising technique motivates the community to plan for LIM experiments. Aims. We describe the development of a large field-of-view instrument, named CONCERTO (for CarbON CII line in post-rEionisation and ReionisaTiOn epoch), operating in the range 130-310 GHz from the APEX 12-m telescope (5100 m above sea level). CONCERTO is a low-resolution spectrometer based on the lumped element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKID) technology. Spectra are obtained using a fast Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), coupled to a dilution cryostat with a base temperature of 0.1 K. Two two kilo-pixel arrays of LEKID are mounted inside the cryostat that also contains the cold optics and the front-end electronics. Methods. We present, in detail, the technological choices leading to the instrumental concept, together with the design and fabrication of the instrument and preliminary laboratory tests on the detectors. We also give our best estimates for CONCERTO sensitivity and give predictions for two of the main scientific goals of CONCERTO, that is, a [CII]-intensity mapping survey and observations of galaxy clusters. Results. We provide a detailed description of the instrument design. Based on realistic comparisons with existing instruments developed by our group (NIKA, NIKA2, and KISS), and on the laboratory characterisation of our detectors, we provide an estimate for CONCERTO sensitivity on the sky. Finally, we describe, in detail, two of the main scientific goals offered by CONCERTO at APEX

    Performance of the electromagnetic and hadronic prototype segments of the ALICE Forward Calorimeter

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    We present the performance of a full-length prototype of the ALICE Forward Calorimeter (FoCal). The detector is composed of a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic sampling calorimeter with longitudinal and transverse segmentation (FoCal-E) of about 20X0X_0 and a hadronic copper-scintillating-fiber calorimeter (FoCal-H) of about 5λint\lambda_{\rm int}. The data were taken between 2021 and 2023 at the CERN PS and SPS beam lines with hadron (electron) beams up to energies of 350 (300) GeV. Regarding FoCal-E, we report a comprehensive analysis of its response to minimum ionizing particles across all pad layers. The longitudinal shower profile of electromagnetic showers is measured with a layer-wise segmentation of 1X0X_0. As a projection to the performance of the final detector in electromagnetic showers, we demonstrate linearity in the full energy range, and show that the energy resolution fulfills the requirements for the physics needs. Additionally, the performance to separate two-showers events was studied by quantifying the transverse shower width. Regarding FoCal-H, we report a detailed analysis of the response to hadron beams between 60 and 350 GeV. The results are compared to simulations obtained with a Geant4 model of the test beam setup, which in particular for FoCal-E are in good agreement with the data. The energy resolution of FoCal-E was found to be lower than 3% at energies larger than 100 GeV. The response of FoCal-H to hadron beams was found to be linear, albeit with a significant intercept that is about factor 2 larger than in simulations. Its resolution, which is non-Gaussian and generally larger than in simulations, was quantified using the FWHM, and decreases from about 16% at 100 GeV to about 11% at 350 GeV. The discrepancy to simulations, which is particularly evident at low hadron energies, needs to be further investigated.Comment: 55 pages (without acronyms), 45 captioned figure

    LLRF electronics for the CNAO synchrotron

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    The Italian National Centre for Oncological hAdrontherapy (CNAO) is undergoing its final construction phase in Pavia and will use proton and carbon ion beams to treat patients affected by solid tumors. At the hearth of CNAO is a 78 meters circumference synchrotron, capable of accelerating particle up to 400 MeV/u with a repetition rate of 0.4 Hz. Particle acceleration is done by a unique VITROVAC load RF cavity operating at a frequency between 0.3 and 3MHz and up to 3kV peak amplitude. This paper describes the Low Level RF electronics developed for this synchrotron

    Assessing bronchodilator response in preschool children using spirometry

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    Background Measuring lung function, including bronchodilator response (BDR), is an integral part of asthma management in older children. While spirometry is possible in preschool-Aged children, the question remains whether measuring BDR AIDS in asthma diagnosis in this age group. Methods 431 healthy children and 289 children with asthma, aged 3-5â €..years, were recruited from kindergartens and the pulmonology clinic in Trelew, Argentina. Spirometry was performed at visit 1 and repeated after 15â €..min, with children randomised to placebo or salbutamol (400â €..μg). Spirometry was again performed within 8â €..weeks at visit 2. Within-session repeatability from visit 1 and between-session reproducibility were calculated using baseline spirometry. The within-session repeatability and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine the optimal threshold values for BDR for spirometry outcome variables measured at the first visit, and sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were determined. Results As a group, children with asthma had lower lung function (FVC 1.11±0.12 L vs 1.01±0.15 L; FEV 0.75 1.01±0.10 L vs 0.91±0.15 L) and a greater BDR (FEV 0.75 group difference 8.6 (95% CI â '5.0 to 14.3)%) than healthy children. BDR was best defined by change in FEV 0.75; an increase of 11% showed the best balance between sensitivity (51%), specificity (88%), positive predictive value (47%) and negative predictive value (89%) for discriminating healthy from preschool-Aged children with asthma. Conclusions A negative BDR in a child suspected of having asthma makes a diagnosis of asthma less likely
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