1,824 research outputs found

    Results on top-quark physics from the CMS experiment

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    The most recent results on top-quark physics reported by the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are presented in this talk. The results are based on a data sample of about 36/pb of data collected during 2010 at a pp center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures Contributed to the Ninth International Conference on Flavor Physics and CP Violation (FPCP 2011), Maale Hachamisha, Israel, May 23--27, 201

    Probing the Atomic Arrangement of Sub-Surface Dopants in a Silicon Quantum Device Platform

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    High-density structures of sub-surface phosphorus dopants in silicon continue to garner interest as a silicon-based quantum computer platform, however, a much-needed confirmation of their dopant arrangement has been lacking. In this work, we take advantage of the chemical specificity of X-ray photoelectron diffraction to obtain the precise structural configuration of P dopants in sub-surface Si:P ή\delta-layers. The growth of ή\delta-layer systems with different levels of doping is carefully studied and verified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. Subsequent XPD measurements reveal that in all cases, the dopants primarily substitute with Si atoms from the host material. Furthermore, no signs of free carrier-inhibiting P−-P dimerization can be observed. Our observations not only settle a nearly decade-long debate about the dopant arrangement but also demonstrate that XPD is well suited to study sub-surface dopant structures. This work thus provides valuable input for an updated understanding of the behavior of Si:P ή\delta-layers and the modeling of their derived quantum devices

    Mixed Cation Halide Perovskite under Environmental and Physical Stress

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    Despite the ideal performance demonstrated by mixed perovskite materials when used as active layers in photovoltaic devices, the factor which still hampers their use in real life remains the poor stability of their physico-chemical and functional properties when submitted to prolonged permanence in atmosphere, exposure to light and/or to moderately high temperature. We used high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy to compare the chemical state of triple cation, double halide Cs [Formula: see text] (FA [Formula: see text] MA [Formula: see text]) [Formula: see text] Pb(I [Formula: see text] Br [Formula: see text]) [Formula: see text] perovskite thin films being freshly deposited or kept for one month in the dark or in the light in environmental conditions. Important deviations from the nominal composition were found in the samples aged in the dark, which, however, did not show evident signs of oxidation and basically preserved their own electronic structures. Ageing in the light determined a dramatic material deterioration with heavily perturbed chemical composition also due to reactions of the perovskite components with surface contaminants, promoted by the exposure to visible radiation. We also investigated the implications that 2D MXene flakes, recently identified as effective perovskite additive to improve solar cell efficiency, might have on the labile resilience of the material to external agents. Our results exclude any deleterious MXene influence on the perovskite stability and, actually, might evidence a mild stabilizing effect for the fresh samples, which, if doped, exhibited a lower deviation from the expected stoichiometry with respect to the undoped sample. The evolution of the undoped perovskites under thermal stress was studied by heating the samples in UHV while monitoring in real time, simultaneously, the behaviour of four representative material elements. Moreover, we could reveal the occurrence of fast changes induced in the fresh material by the photon beam as well as the enhanced decomposition triggered by the concurrent X-ray irradiation and thermal heating

    The Molecular and Cellular Basis of Tumor Rejection After Vaccination With Mammary Adenocarcinoma Cells Transduced With the MHC Class II Transactivator CIITA

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    CD8+ T cell responses are major players of tumor eradication in various vaccination protocols. However, an optimal stimulation of CD4+ T helper cells is required for both priming and maintenance of the effector CTL response against the tumor. In this study we show that the murine mammary adenocarcinoma cell line TS/A, a highly malignant MHC-II-negative tumor, is rejected in vivo if genetically engineered to express MHC-II molecules by transfer of the MHC-II transactivator CIITA. TS/ACIITA cells are fully rejected by 93% of the syngeneic recipients and have a significantly lower growth rate in the remaining 7% of animals. Rejection requires CD4+ and CD8+ cells. CD4+ T cells are fundamental in the priming phase, whereas CTLs are the major anti-tumor effectors. All tumor rejecting animals are protected against rechallenge with the parental TS/A tumor. Immunohistochemical data at day 5 post-inoculation showed an higher infiltrate of CD4+ T cells in mice bearing TS/A-CIITA, than in mice bearing the TS/A tumor. Subsequently, from day 7 trough day 10, TS/A-CIITA tumors showed higher number of both CD4+ and CD8+ cells, dendritic cells, together with massive necrosis. The frequency of IFN-αsecreting splenocytes early after inoculations was also assessed by an ex vivo ELISPOT assay. Only the rejecting TS/A-CIITA animals showed an high frequency of IFN-αsecreting cells (between 80 and 120/106 splenocytes). Importantly, CD4 and CD8 depletion experiments revealed that at the time of tumor resolution the major cell population recognizing the TS/A-CIITA cells was of CD4 origin. This is the first example of successful tumor vaccination by genetic transfer of CIITA. These results open the way to a possible use of CIITA for increasing both the inducing and the effector phase of the anti-tumor response. from 2005 International Meeting of The Institute of Human Virology Baltimore, USA, 29 August – 2 September 200

    Atomic Undercoordination in Ag Islands on Ru(0001) Grown via Size-Selected Cluster Deposition: An Experimental and Theoretical High-Resolution Core-Level Photoemission Study

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    The possibility of depositing precisely mass-selected Ag clusters (Ag-1, Ag-3, and Ag-7) on Ru(0001) was instrumental in determining the importance of the in-plane coordination number (CN) and allowed us to establish a linear dependence of the Ag 3d(5/2) core-level shift on CN. The fast cluster surface diffusion at room temperature, caused by the low interaction between silver and ruthenium, leads to the formation of islands with a low degree of ordering, as evidenced by the high density of low-coordinated atomic configurations, in particular CN = 4 and 5. On the contrary, islands formed upon Ag-7 deposition show a higher density of atoms with CN = 6, thus indicating the formation of islands with a close-packed atomic arrangement. This combined experimental and theoretical approach, when applied to clusters of different elements, offers the perspective to reveal nonequivalent local configurations in two-dimensional (2D) materials grown using different building blocks, with potential implications in understanding electronic and reactivity properties at the atomic level

    Effect of chestnut tannins and short chain fatty acids as anti-microbials and as feeding supplements in broilers rearing and meat quality

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    Chestnut tannins (CT) and saturated short medium chain fatty acids (SMCFA) are valid alternatives to contrast the growth of pathogens in poultry rearing, representing a valid alternative to antibiotics. However, the effect of their blends has never been tested. Two blends of CT extract and Sn1-monoglycerides of SMCFA (SN1) were tested in vitro against the proliferation of Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella typhymurium, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni. The tested concentrations were: 3.0 g/kg of CT; 3.0 g/kg of SN1; 2.0 g/kg of CT and 1.0 g/kg of SN1; 1.0 g/kg of CT and 2.0 g/kg of SN1. Furthermore, their effect on broiler performances and meat quality was evaluated in vivo: one-hundred Ross 308 male birds were fed a basal diet with no supplement (control group) or supplemented with CT or SN1 or their blends at the same concentration used in the in vitro trial. The in vitro assay confirmed the effectiveness of the CT and SN1 mixtures in reducing the growth of the tested bacteria while the in vivo trial showed that broiler performances, animal welfare and meat quality were not negatively affected by the blends, which could be a promising alternative in replacing antibiotics in poultry production

    Metal Abundances of Red Clump Stars in Open Clusters: I. NGC 6819

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    We present an analysis of high dispersion spectra (R~40000) of three red clump stars in the old open cluster NGC 6819. The spectra were obtained with SARG, the high dispersion spectrograph of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. The spectra were analyzed using both equivalent widths measured with an automatic procedure, and comparisons with synthetic spectra. NGC 6819 is found to be slightly metal-rich ([Fe/H]= +0.09 +/-0.03, internal error); there are no previous high resolution studies to compare with. Most element-to-element abundance ratios are close to solar; we find a slight excess of Si, and a significant Na overabundance. Our spectra can also be used to derive the interstellar reddening towards the cluster, by comparing the observed colours with those expected from line excitation: we derive E(B-V)=0.14 +/-0.04, in agreement with the most recent estimate for this cluster.Comment: 30 pages, 4 encapsulated figures, uses aastex, AJ in pres

    Four tops on the real projective plane at LHC

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    We explore the four top signal ttbar ttbar at the 7 TeV Large Hadron Collider as a probe of physics beyond the standard model. Enhancement of the corresponding cross-section with respect to the Standard Model value can probe the electroweak symmetry breaking sector or test extra dimensional models with heavy Kaluza-Klein gluons and quarks. We perform a detailed analysis including background and detector simulation in the specific case of a universal extra-dimensional model with two extra dimensions compactified using the geometry of the real projective plane. For masses around 600 GeV, a discovery is possible for an effective cross section above 210 fb (36 fb) for 1/fb (10/fb) of integrated luminosity. This implies a branching ratio in tops of the (1,1) heavy photon above 13% (5%). Furthermore, the 4-top signal from the (2,0) and (0,2) tiers can be discovered with an integrated luminosity of 3.5/fb. The results of our simulation can be easily adapted to other models since the background processes are identical. Concerning the signal, typical production mechanisms for the ttbar ttbar signal are similar even if cross-section values may vary considerably depending on the model and the spectrum of the new particles.Comment: 26 pages, 4 figures, minor modifications and few references adde