1,760 research outputs found

    The new Beam Halo Monitor for the CMS experiment at the LHC

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    In the context of increasing beam energy and luminosity of the LHC accelerator at CERN, it will be important to accurately measure the Machine Induced Background. A new monitoring system will be installed in the CMS cavern for measuring the beam background at high radius. This detector, called the Beam Halo Monitor, will provide an online, bunch-by-bunch measurement of background induced by beam halo interactions, separately for each beam. The detector is composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators, coupled to fast UV sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The directional and fast response of the system allows the discrimination of the background particles from the dominant flux in the cavern induced by pp collision debris, produced within the 25 ns bunch spacing. The readout electronics of this detector will make use of many components developed for the upgrade of the CMS Hadron Calorimeter electronics, with a dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal will be digitized by a charge integrating ASIC, providing both the signal rise time and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics will record bunch-by-bunch histograms, which will be published to CMS and the LHC using the newly designed CMS beam instrumentation specific DAQ. A calibration and monitoring system has been designed to generate triggered pulses of UV light to monitor the efficiency of the system. The experimental results validating the design of the detector, the calibration system and the electronics will be presented

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an