5,034 research outputs found

    Algorithm Portfolio for Individual-based Surrogate-Assisted Evolutionary Algorithms

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    Surrogate-assisted evolutionary algorithms (SAEAs) are powerful optimisation tools for computationally expensive problems (CEPs). However, a randomly selected algorithm may fail in solving unknown problems due to no free lunch theorems, and it will cause more computational resource if we re-run the algorithm or try other algorithms to get a much solution, which is more serious in CEPs. In this paper, we consider an algorithm portfolio for SAEAs to reduce the risk of choosing an inappropriate algorithm for CEPs. We propose two portfolio frameworks for very expensive problems in which the maximal number of fitness evaluations is only 5 times of the problem's dimension. One framework named Par-IBSAEA runs all algorithm candidates in parallel and a more sophisticated framework named UCB-IBSAEA employs the Upper Confidence Bound (UCB) policy from reinforcement learning to help select the most appropriate algorithm at each iteration. An effective reward definition is proposed for the UCB policy. We consider three state-of-the-art individual-based SAEAs on different problems and compare them to the portfolios built from their instances on several benchmark problems given limited computation budgets. Our experimental studies demonstrate that our proposed portfolio frameworks significantly outperform any single algorithm on the set of benchmark problems

    The effects of KSEA interaction on the ground-state properties of spin chains in a transverse field

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    The effects of symmetric helical interaction which is called the Kaplan, Shekhtman, Entin-Wohlman, and Aharony (KSEA) interaction on the ground-state properties of three kinds of spin chains in a transverse field have been studied by means of correlation functions and chiral order parameter. We find that the anisotropic transition of XYXY chain in a transverse field (XYXYTF) disappears because of the KSEA interaction. For the other two chains, we find that the regions of gapless chiral phases in the parameter space induced by the DM or XZYYZXXZY-YZX type of three-site interaction are decreased gradually with increase of the strength of KSEA interaction. When it is larger than the coefficient of DM or XZYYZXXZY-YZX type of three-site interaction, the gapless chiral phases also disappear.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figure

    Hard X-ray emission cutoff in anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61 detected by INTEGRAL

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    The anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61 was studied by the INTEGRAL observations. The hard X-ray spectrum of 18 -- 500 keV for 4U 0142+61 was derived using near 9 years of INTEGRAL/IBIS data. We obtained the average hard X-ray spectrum of 4U 0142+61 with all available data. The spectrum of 4U 0142+61 can be fitted with a power-law with an exponential high energy cutoff. This average spectrum is well fitted with a power-law of Γ0.51±0.11\Gamma\sim 0.51\pm 0.11 plus a cutoff energy at 128.6±17.2128.6\pm 17.2 keV. The hard X-ray flux of the source from 20 -- 150 keV showed no significant variations (within 20%\%) from 2003 -- 2011. The spectral profiles have some variability in nine years: photon index varied from 0.3 -- 1.5, and cutoff energies of 110 -- 250 keV. The detection of the high energy cutoff around 130 keV shows some constraints on the radiation mechanisms of magnetars and possibly probes the differences between magnetar and accretion models for these special class of neutron stars. Future HXMT observations could provide stronger constraints on the hard X-ray spectral properties of this source and other magnetar candidates.Comment: 9 pages, 5 figures, 2 tables, figures are updated, new data are added, conclusion does not change, to be published in RA