775 research outputs found

    RoMoMatteR: Empowering Roma Girls’ Mattering through Reproductive Justice

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    Aim: To present a protocol study directed at tackling gender discrimination against Roma girls by empowering their mattering so they can envision their own futures and choose motherhood only if—and when—they are ready. Background: Motherhood among Roma girls (RGM) in Europe impoverishes their lives, puts them at risk of poor physical and mental health and precipitates school dropouts. Overwhelming evidence affirms that the conditions of poverty and the social exclusionary processes they suffer have a very important explanatory weight in their sexual and reproductive decisions. Methods: Through a Community-based Participatory Action Research design, 20–25 Roma girls will be recruited in each one of the four impoverished communities in Bulgaria, Romania and Spain. Data collection and analysis: Desk review about scientific evidences and policies will be carried out to frame the problem. Narratives of Roma women as well as baseline and end line interviews of girl participants will be collected through both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Quantitative data will be gathered through reliable scales of mattering, socio–political agency, satisfaction with life and self. A narrative analysis of the qualitative information generated in the interviews will be carried out. Expected results: (1) uncover contextual and psychosocial patterns of girl-motherhood among Roma women; (2) build critical thinking among Roma girls to actively participate in all decisions affecting them and advocate for their own gender rights within their communities; and (3) empower Roma girls and their significant adults to critically evaluate their own initiatives and provide feedback to their relevant stakeholders. Conclusions: Roma girls will improve their educational aspirations and achievements and their social status while respecting and enhancing Roma values.This initiative is funded by the DG Justice of the European Commission in the Call for proposals for action grants under 2017 Rights Equality and Citizenship Work REC-AG #809813

    The effect of proprioceptive knee bracing on knee stability during three different sport related movement tasks in healthy subjects and the implications to the management of Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries

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    Abstract Introduction: Proprioceptive knee braces have been shown to improve knee mechanics, however much of the work to date has focused on tasks such as slow step down tasks rather than more dynamic sporting tasks. Objective: This study aimed to explore if such improvements in stability may be seen during faster sports specific tasks as well as slower tasks. Method: Twelve subjects performed a slow step down, single leg drop jump and pivot turn jump with and without a silicone web brace. 3D kinematics of the knee were collected using a ten camera Qualisys motion analysis system. Reflective markers were placed on the foot, shank, thigh and pelvis using the Calibrated Anatomical Systems Technique. A two way ANOVA with repeated measures was performed with post-hoc pairwise comparison to explore the differences between the two conditions and three tasks. Results: Significant differences were seen in the knee joint angles and angular velocities in the sagittal, coronal and transverse planes between the tasks. The brace showed a reduction in knee valgum and internal rotation across all tasks, with the most notable effect during the single leg drop jump and pivot turn jump. The transverse plane also showed a significant reduction in the external rotation knee angular velocity when wearing the brace. Discussion: The brace influenced the knee joint kinematics in coronal and transverse planes which confirms that such braces can have a significant effect on knee control during dynamic tasks. Further studies are required exploring the efficacy of proprioceptive braces in athletic patient cohort. Acknowledgements This study is partly founded by Erasmus+ program who have sponsored two masters students. The braces were supplied by DJO Global, Inc. The suppliers played no role in the design, execution, analysis and interpretation of the data or writing of this study

    Transverse-momentum-dependent Multiplicities of Charged Hadrons in Muon-Deuteron Deep Inelastic Scattering

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    A semi-inclusive measurement of charged hadron multiplicities in deep inelastic muon scattering off an isoscalar target was performed using data collected by the COMPASS Collaboration at CERN. The following kinematic domain is covered by the data: photon virtuality Q2>1Q^{2}>1 (GeV/cc)2^2, invariant mass of the hadronic system W>5W > 5 GeV/c2c^2, Bjorken scaling variable in the range 0.003<x<0.40.003 < x < 0.4, fraction of the virtual photon energy carried by the hadron in the range 0.2<z<0.80.2 < z < 0.8, square of the hadron transverse momentum with respect to the virtual photon direction in the range 0.02 (GeV/c)2<PhT2<3c)^2 < P_{\rm{hT}}^{2} < 3 (GeV/cc)2^2. The multiplicities are presented as a function of PhT2P_{\rm{hT}}^{2} in three-dimensional bins of xx, Q2Q^2, zz and compared to previous semi-inclusive measurements. We explore the small-PhT2P_{\rm{hT}}^{2} region, i.e. PhT2<1P_{\rm{hT}}^{2} < 1 (GeV/cc)2^2, where hadron transverse momenta are expected to arise from non-perturbative effects, and also the domain of larger PhT2P_{\rm{hT}}^{2}, where contributions from higher-order perturbative QCD are expected to dominate. The multiplicities are fitted using a single-exponential function at small PhT2P_{\rm{hT}}^{2} to study the dependence of the average transverse momentum PhT2\langle P_{\rm{hT}}^{2}\rangle on xx, Q2Q^2 and zz. The power-law behaviour of the multiplicities at large PhT2P_{\rm{hT}}^{2} is investigated using various functional forms. The fits describe the data reasonably well over the full measured range.Comment: 28 pages, 20 figure

    Arginine Deprivation With Pegylated Arginine Deiminase in Patients With Argininosuccinate Synthetase 1-Deficient Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    IMPORTANCE: Preclinical studies show that arginine deprivation is synthetically lethal in argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1)-negative cancers, including mesothelioma. The role of the arginine-lowering agent pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20) has not been evaluated in a randomized and biomarker-driven study among patients with cancer. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical impact of arginine depletion in patients with ASS1-deficient malignant pleural mesothelioma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A multicenter phase 2 randomized clinical trial, the Arginine Deiminase and Mesothelioma (ADAM) study, was conducted between March 2, 2011, and May 21, 2013, at 8 academic cancer centers. Immunohistochemical screening of 201 patients (2011-2013) identified 68 with advanced ASS1-deficient malignant pleural mesothelioma. INTERVENTIONS: Randomization 2:1 to arginine deprivation (ADI-PEG20, 36.8 mg/m2, weekly intramuscular) plus best supportive care (BSC) or BSC alone. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) assessed by modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) (target hazard ratio, 0.60). Secondary end points were overall survival (OS), tumor response rate, safety, and quality of life, analyzed by intention to treat. We measured plasma arginine and citrulline levels, anti–ADI-PEG20 antibody titer, ASS1 methylation status, and metabolic response by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography. RESULTS: Median (range) follow-up in 68 adults (median [range] age, 66 [48-83] years; 19% female) was 38 (2.5-39) months. The PFS hazard ratio was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.33-0.96), with a median of 3.2 months in the ADI-PEG20 group vs 2.0 months in the BSC group (P = .03) (absolute risk, 18% vs 0% at 6 months). Best response at 4 months (modified RECIST) was stable disease: 12 of 23 (52%) in the ADI-PEG20 group vs 2 of 9 (22%) in the BSC group (P = .23). The OS curves crossed, so life expectancy was used: 15.7 months in the ADI-PEG20 group vs 12.1 months in the BSC group (difference of 3.6 [95% CI, −1.0 to 8.1] months; P = .13). The incidence of symptomatic adverse events of grade at least 3 was 11 of 44 (25%) in the ADI-PEG20 group vs 4 of 24 (17%) in the BSC group (P = .43), the most common being immune related, nonfebrile neutropenia, gastrointestinal events, and fatigue. Differential ASS1 gene-body methylation correlated with ASS1 immunohistochemistry, and longer arginine deprivation correlated with improved PFS. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this trial, arginine deprivation with ADI-PEG20 improved PFS in patients with ASS1-deficient mesothelioma. Targeting arginine is safe and warrants further clinical investigation in arginine-dependent cancers

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum