50 research outputs found

    How do market structures affect decisions on vertical integration/separation?

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    We provide a simple model to investigate decisions on vertical integration/separation. The key feature of this model is that more than one input is required for the final products of the local downstream monopolists. Depending on their cost structure, downstream firms' decisions on vertical separation can be both strategic complements and strategic substitutes. As a result, the equilibrium number of vertically integrated firms depends on the cost structure. When the local downstream monopolists merge, vertical separation tends to appear in equilibrium. When an upstream firm can price discriminate, the downstream firms vertically separate. When the downstream firms compete with each other, vertical integration tends to appear if the degree of product differentiation is lower.

    Vertical Separation as a Defense against Strong Suppliers

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    We provide a simple model to investigate decisions about vertical separation. The key feature of this model is that more than one input is required for the final product of the downstream monopolist. We show that as the bargaining powers of independent complementary input suppliers grow larger, the downstream monopolist tends to separate from its input units. The results are related to a visible difference between the vertical structures of Japanese and US auto assemblers.

    Input specificity and product differentiation

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    Using a simple product differentiation model with elastic demands, we investigate the relationship between differentiation strategies and vertical relations. Depending on the competitive structure in the upstream market, three differentiation patterns (maximum, minimum and partial differentiation) can appear in equilibrium even though each downstream firm freely determines the degree of product differentiation. When downstream firms must incur positive investment costs to differentiate their products, they tend to do so if the upstream market is competitive.

    Input Specificity and Product Differentiation

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    How Do Market Structures Affect Decisions on Vertical Integration/Separation?

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    Vertical Separation as a Defense against Strong Suppliers

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    Endogenous transport price, R&D spillovers, and trade

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    Efficient distribution has a considerable influence on the sales volume of firms, and thus affects the firms' research and development (R&D) activities. This paper analyzes the relationship between competition in the transport sector and R&D of firms using the transportation services. We consider a two-region reciprocal market in which firms invest in cost-reducing R&D and use carriers that engage in price competition to supply their products to the foreign market. We show that, corresponding to the degree of R&D spillover, a transport cost (or price) reduction due to an increase in the number of carriers can increase or decrease the firms' R&D investments. This result is consistent with the finding in previous studies that trade liberalization can hinder R&D. Because inefficient firms lead to high prices in the market, an increase in the number of carriers may reduce consumer surplus. We further discuss a case in which firms have monopsony power in transportation services and show that our main results are robust to the extension

    Rules of origin and uncertain cost of compliance

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    To consider the role of uncertain production cost resulting from complying with rules of origin (ROO), we formulate a Cournot oligopoly model of a free trade area (FTA). If exporters do not comply with ROO, they must pay an external tariff, and if they comply, they enjoy zero tariff but suffer an uncertain production cost. Because compliers must source a certain ratio of the inputs from within the area, they face input-price fluctuations in that area; this yields an uncertain production cost for compliers. This uncertain cost provides a benefit to compliers owing to its variance. Therefore, for an intermediate external tariff, strategic substitution emerges in exporters' choice. We show that the coexistence of compliers and non-compliers is seen among symmetric exporters. We also discuss the endogenous rate of ROO-compliers in the coexisting equilibrium of compliers and non-compliers. We show that if the variance of the uncertain production cost is small, the rate of ROO-compliers in the coexisting equilibrium increases with the number of total exporters inside the FTA

    Rules of origin and uncertain cost of compliance

    Get PDF
    To consider the role of uncertain production cost resulting from complying with rules of origin (ROO), we formulate a Cournot oligopoly model of a free trade area (FTA). If exporters do not comply with ROO, they must pay an external tariff, and if they comply, they enjoy zero tariff but suffer an uncertain production cost. Because compliers must source a certain ratio of the inputs from within the area, they face input-price fluctuations in that area; this yields an uncertain production cost for compliers. This uncertain cost provides a benefit to compliers owing to its variance. Therefore, for an intermediate external tariff, strategic substitution emerges in exporters' choice. We show that the coexistence of compliers and non-compliers is seen among symmetric exporters. We also discuss the endogenous rate of ROO-compliers in the coexisting equilibrium of compliers and non-compliers. We show that if the variance of the uncertain production cost is small, the rate of ROO-compliers in the coexisting equilibrium increases with the number of total exporters inside the FTA
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