4,436 research outputs found

    Line Broadening and Decoherence of Electron Spins in Phosphorus-Doped Silicon Due to Environmental 29^Si Nuclear Spins

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    Phosphorus-doped silicon single crystals with 0.19 % <= f <= 99.2 %, where f is the concentration of 29^Si isotopes, are measured at 8 K using a pulsed electron spin resonance technique, thereby the effect of environmental 29^Si nuclear spins on the donor electron spin is systematically studied. The linewidth as a function of f shows a good agreement with theoretical analysis. We also report the phase memory time T_M of the donor electron spin dependent on both f and the crystal axis relative to the external magnetic field.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Unrelated cord blood transplantation after myeloablative conditioning in adult patients with acute leukemia

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    Host isotope mass effects on the hyperfine interaction of group-V donors in silicon

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    The effects of host isotope mass on the hyperfine interaction of group-V donors in silicon are revealed by pulsed electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy of isotopically engineered Si single crystals. Each of the hyperfine-split P-31, As-75, Sb-121, Sb-123, and Bi-209 ENDOR lines splits further into multiple components, whose relative intensities accurately match the statistical likelihood of the nine possible average Si masses in the four nearest-neighbor sites due to random occupation by the three stable isotopes Si-28, Si-29, and Si-30. Further investigation with P-31 donors shows that the resolved ENDOR components shift linearly with the bulk-averaged Si mass.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, 1 tabl

    ‚ÄúWho Cares?‚ÄĚ: the acceptance of decentralized wastewater systems in regions without water problems

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    There is a growing interest in decentralized wastewater treatment systems, especially in regions with water scarcity problems or water management issues. This study aims to determine whether the perceived advantages and disadvantages (leading to acceptance) of decentralized wastewater plants in such regions are the same in regions where the population is not aware of these water issues. Firstly, this study systematically reviews previous findings on public perceptions of the acceptance of decentralized wastewater treatment systems. Then, the study details the results of a focus group study to determine whether the elements identified in the literature are also relevant in a region where people are unaware of water problems. The results show that a lack of awareness of water issues seems to be a critical factor influencing acceptance. Reframing the usefulness of these systems by focusing on other aspects, such as environmental sustainability, is key.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Real-time optimization of the key filtration parameters in an AnMBR: Urban wastewater mono-digestion vs. co-digestion with domestic food waste

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    [EN] This study describes a model-based method for real-time optimization of the key filtration parameters in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating urban wastewater (UWW) and UWW mixed with domestic food waste (FW). The method consists of an initial screening to find out adequate filtration conditions and a real-time optimizer applied to a periodically calibrated filtration model for minimizing the operating costs. The initial screening consists of two statistical analyses: (1) Morris screening method to identify the key filtration parameters; (2) Monte Carlo method to establish suitable initial control inputs values. The operating filtration cost after implementing the control methodology was (sic)0.047 per m(3) (59.6% corresponding to energy costs) when treating UWW and 0.067 per m(3) when adding FW due to higher fouling rates. However, FW increased the biogas productivities, reducing the total costs to (sic)0.035 per m(3). Average downtimes for reversible fouling removal of 0.4% and 1.6% were obtained, respectively. The results confirm the capability of the proposed control system for optimizing the AnMBR performance when treating both substrates. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.This research work was possible thanks to financial support from Generalitat Valenciana (project PROMETEO/2012/029) which is gratefully acknowledged. Besides, support from FCC Aqualia participation in INNPRONTA 2011 IISIS IPT-20111023 project (partially funded by The Centre for Industrial Technological Development (CDTI) and from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness) is gratefully acknowledged.Robles Mart√≠nez, √Ā.; Capson-Tojo, G.; Ruano Garc√≠a, MV.; Seco Torrecillas, A.; Ferrer, J. (2018). Real-time optimization of the key filtration parameters in an AnMBR: Urban wastewater mono-digestion vs. co-digestion with domestic food waste. Waste Management. 80:299-309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2018.09.031S2993098
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