3,489 research outputs found

    Photon splitting in atomic fields

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    Photon splitting due to vacuum polarization in the electric field of an atom is considered. We survey different theoretical approaches to the description of this nonlinear QED process and several attempts of its experimental observation. We present the results of the lowest-order perturbation theory as well as those obtained within the quasiclassical approximation being exact in the external field strength. The experiment where photon splitting was really observed for the first time is discussed in details. The results of this experiment are compared with recent theoretical estimations.Comment: 45 pages, 24 figure

    Quasi-Optimal Filtering in Inverse Problems

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    A way of constructing a nonlinear filter close to the optimal Kolmogorov - Wiener filter is proposed within the framework of the statistical approach to inverse problems. Quasi-optimal filtering, which has no Bayesian assumptions, produces stable and efficient solutions by relying solely on the internal resources of the inverse theory. The exact representation is given of the Feasible Region for inverse solutions that follows from the statistical consideration.Comment: 9 pages, 240 K

    Hydration of a B-DNA Fragment in the Method of Atom-atom Correlation Functions with the Reference Interaction Site Model Approximation

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    We propose an efficient numerical algorithm for solving integral equations of the theory of liquids in the Reference Interaction Site Model (RISM) approximation for infinitely dilute solution of macromolecules with a large number of atoms. The algorithm is based on applying the nonstationary iterative methods for solving systems of linear algebraic equations. We calculate the solvent-solute atom-atom correlation functions for a fragment of the B-DNA duplex d(GGGGG).d(CCCCC) in infinitely dilute aqueous solution. The obtained results are compared with available experimental data and results from computer simulations.Comment: 9 pages, RevTeX, 9 pages of ps figures, accepted for publications in JC

    Condensation of Silica Nanoparticles on a Phospholipid Membrane

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    The structure of the transient layer at the interface between air and the aqueous solution of silica nanoparticles with the size distribution of particles that has been determined from small-angle scattering has been studied by the X-ray reflectometry method. The reconstructed depth profile of the polarizability of the substance indicates the presence of a structure consisting of several layers of nanoparticles with the thickness that is more than twice as large as the thickness of the previously described structure. The adsorption of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine molecules at the hydrosol/air interface is accompanied by the condensation of anion silica nanoparticles at the interface. This phenomenon can be qualitatively explained by the formation of the positive surface potential due to the penetration and accumulation of Na+ cations in the phospholipid membrane.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figure
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