270 research outputs found

    Breastfeeding is negatively affected by prenatal depression and reduces postpartum depression

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    Background. This prospective cohort study explored the effects of prenatal and postpartum depression on breastfeeding and the effect of breastfeeding on postpartum depression. Method. The Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) was administered to 145 women at the first, second and third trimester, and at the neonatal period and 3 months postpartum. Self-report exclusive breastfeeding since birth was collected at birth and at 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. Data analyses were performed using repeated-measures ANOVAs and logistic and multiple linear regressions. Results. Depression scores at the third trimester, but not at 3 months postpartum, were the best predictors of exclusive breastfeeding duration (β =−0.30, t=−2.08, p<0.05). A significant decrease in depression scores was seen from childbirth to 3 months postpartum in women who maintained exclusive breastfeeding for53 months (F1,65 =3.73, p<0.10, ηp 2 =0.05). Conclusions. These findings suggest that screening for depression symptoms during pregnancy can help to identify women at risk for early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding, and that exclusive breastfeeding may help to reduce symptoms of depression from childbirth to 3 months postpartum.This research was supported by FEDER Funds through the Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE and by National Funds through FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia under the project: PTDC/SAU/SAP/116738/2010, and by a FCT grant to the first author (BSAB/1300656063)

    Testing a frequency of exposure hypothesis in attentional bias for alcohol-related stimuli amongst social drinkers

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    Aims To examine whether a group of social drinkers showed longer response latencies to alcohol-related stimuli than neutral stimuli and to test whether exposure to 1) an alcohol-related environment and 2) consumption related cues influenced the interference from alcohol-related stimuli. Methods A 2 × 2 × 2 × 5 factorial design with Exposure Group (high, low) and Consumption Group (high, low) as between-participant factors and Word Type (alcohol, neutral) and Block (1–5) as within-participant factors was used. Forty-three undergraduate university students, 21 assigned to a high exposure group and 22 to a low exposure group, took part in the experiment. Exposure Group was defined according to whether or not participants currently worked in a bar or pub. Consumption Group was defined according to a median split on a quantity–frequency measure derived from two questions of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire. A modified computerised Stroop colour naming test was used to measure response latencies. Results Exposure and consumption factors interacted to produce greater interference from alcohol-related stimuli. In particular, the low consumption group showed interference from alcohol-related stimuli only in the high exposure condition. Exposure did not affect the magnitude of interference in the high consumption group. Conclusions Attentional bias is dependent upon exposure to distinct types of alcohol-related cues

    Exclusive breastfeeding at three months and infant sleep-wake behaviors at two weeks, three and six months

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    This study assessed infant sleep-wake behavior at two weeks, three and six months as function of feeding method at three months (exclusively breastfed, partially breastfed, and exclusively formula fed infants). Mothers of 163 first-born, full-term, normal birth weight, healthy infants completed socio-demographic, depression, anxiety, and infant sleep-wake behavior measures. No effects were found for sleep arrangements, depression or anxiety, on feeding methods and sleep-wake behavior at three months. At two weeks exclusively breastfed infants at three months spent more hours sleeping and less hours awake during the 24-h period than partially breastfed infants. At three months, exclusively breastfed infants had a shorter of the longest sleep period at night than exclusively formula fed infants. At six months, exclusively breastfed infants at three months spent more hours awake at night than partially breastfed infants, awake more at night than exclusively formula fed infants, and had a shorter sleep period at night than partially breastfed and exclusively formula fed infants. This study showed differences in sleep-wake behaviors at two weeks, three and six months, when exclusively breastfed infants are compared with partially breastfed and exclusively formula fed infants at three months, while no effects were found for sleep arrangements, depression or anxiety.PTDC/SAU/SAP/116738/2010; SFRH/BSAB/14445/2014; POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007653info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Pregnancy massage reduces prematurity, low birthweight and postpartum depression

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    Pregnant women diagnosed with major depression were given 12 weeks of twice per week massage therapy by their significant other or only standard treatment as a control group. The massage therapy group women versus the control group women not only had reduced depression by the end of the therapy period, but they also had reduced depression and cortisol levels during the postpartum period. Their newborns were also less likely to be born prematurely and low birthweight, and they had lower cortisol levels and performed better on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment habituation, orientation and motor scales.We would like to thank the women, men and infants who participated in this study and the research associates who assisted us. This research was supported by a Merit Award (MH46586), Senior Research Scientist Awards (MH00331 and AT001585) and a March of Dimes Grant (# 12-FYO3-48) to Tiffany Field and funding from Johnson and Johnson Pediatric Institute to the Touch Research Institute

    Infant sleep-wake behaviors at two weeks, three and six months

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    Although infant sleep-wake behavior presents several developmental changes during the first six months, literature lacks on reference values and few studies have explored the role of individual change and stability on infant sleep-wake behavior during the first six months. This study aimed (1) to describe infant sleep-wake behaviors during the 24-h period, day and night, at two weeks, three, and six months, (2) and to explore developmental changes and the role of individual change and stability on infant sleep-wake behaviors from two weeks to six months. Ninety-four primiparous mothers completed measures on infant sleep-wake behaviors at two weeks, three and six months. Significant developmental changes were found on infant sleep-wake behaviors from two weeks to six months. Twoweek- old infants sleep 13.3 h, spend 8.7 h awake, awake 6.1 times, have 0.4 h of latency to sleep, and 3.2 h of longest sleep period. Three-month-old infants sleep 13.0 h, spend 9.2 h awake, awake 5.5 times, have 0.4 h of latency to sleep, and 5.2 h of longest sleep period. Sixmonth- old infants sleep 12.2 h, spend 10.0 h awake, awake 5.2 times, have 0.4 h of latency to sleep, and 5.6 h of longest sleep period. Significant individual change and stability were also found on infant sleep-wake behaviors from two weeks to six months. Despite significant developmental and individual changes, individual stability explains a significant amount of the variance on infant sleep-wake behaviors over the first six months of life.FEDER Funds through the Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade − COMPETE and by National Funds through FCT − Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia under the project: PTDC/SAU/SAP/116738/2010 and SFRH/BSAB/14445/2014 grantPortuguese Foundation for Science and Technology and the Portuguese Ministry of Education and Science through national funds and co-financed by FEDER through COMPETE2020 under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement (POCI-01-0145- FEDER-007653)Psychology Research Centre (UID/PSI/01662/2013), University of Minh

    Maternal depression effects on infants

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    Infants are extremely vulnerable to learning maladaptive behaviors from their depressed mothers. Since a mother’s influence on her infant’s social development and interactional style begins at birth, it is important to investigate the developmental effects of both transient postpartum depression and chronic depression on the infant. This comprehensive review of the limited research available supports the theory that infants develop different interactional styles depending on their mother’s affect. The literature also suggests that a depressed maternal style is much more distressing to infants than physical unavailability. Pervasiveness of the infant’s depressed interactional style to other individuals regardless of their affect may be indicative of long-lasting social competencies. More research is needed to identify the salient influential features of a depressed mothering style on infant development as well as longitudinal studies to examine the impact of maternal depression on later development of social skills.ABSTRACT: As criancas slo extremamente vulneraveis e susceptiveis de aprender comportamentos desajustados por influencia das mles. Uma vez que a influencia da mle sobre o desenvolvimento social e o estilo de interacclo do bebC se inicia ti nascenqa, C importante investigar o efeito que a depress50 p6sparto transitbria, e a depress80 cr6nica tCm sobre esse desenvolvimento. Esta revislo exaustiva da pouca investigaGlo que existe sobre o problema, apoia a teoria de que OS bebCs desenvolvem diferentes estilos de interacego em funclo do afecto da mle. A literatura tambCm sugere que um estilo maternal depressivo e muito mais perturbador para OS bebCs do que a nlo disponibilidade fisica. 0 facto de as crianqas de mles depressivas manterem um estilo de interac@o depressivo quando interagem com outros individuos, independentemente do afecto que estes revelem pode ser indicativo de competencias sociais perdurhveis. E necesshia mais investigaqlo para identificar OS aspectos salientes da influencia do estilo maternal depressivo no desenvolvimento do beb6 assim como estudos longitudinais para examinar o impacto da depressgo materna no desenvolvimento de skills sociais posteriores

    Relacionamento conjugal durante a gravidez mulheres e homens ansiosos e deprimidos

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    To assess anxiety, depression and relationship satisfaction in both women and men during pregnancy, the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and The Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) were administered during the second trimester to a sample of 59 pregnant women and their partners. Anxious pregnant women rated their relationships as less positive. Depressed pregnant women also rated their relationships as less positive. The women’s anxiety scores were predictive of their positive and negative relationship scores. The women and their partners’ negative relationship scores were also predictive of each others’ negative relationship scores. These results highlight the importance of targeting anxiety as well as depression, and pregnant women as well as their partners in prenatal intervention programs.Para avaliar a ansiedade, a depressão e o relacionamento conjugal em mulheres e homens durante a gravidez, o State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), o Center for Epidemiological Studies ­Depression Scale (CES­D) e o Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) foram administrados durante o segundo trimestre a uma amostra de 59 grávidas e seus companheiros. As mulheres grávidas ansiosas avaliaram o seu relacionamento como menos positivo. As mulheres grávidas deprimidas também avaliaram o seu relacionamento como mesmo positivo. Os valores de ansiedade mostraram ser preditores do relacionamento positivo e negativo. Os valores do relacionamento da mulher e do seu companheiro também se mostraram mutuamente preditores dos seus relacionamentos negativos. Estes resultados mostram a importância de considerar a ansiedade tanto quanto a depressão e a mulher grávida tanto quanto o seu companheiro em programas de intervenção pré-natal.This research was supported by grants from the March of Dimes (12FY03-48) and NIMH (MH# 46586) and NIMH Research ScientistAwards (MH# 00331 andAT# 001585) to Tiffany Field, funding from Johnson & Johnson to the Touch Research Institutes, and a fellowship to Barbara Figueiredo (POCI/SAU-ESP/56397/2004, funded under the 2010 Science and Innovation Operational Program (POCI 2010) of the Community Support Board III, and supported by the European Community Fund FEDER)

    Sleep disturbances in depressed pregnant women and their newborns

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    Pregnant women (N= 253) were recruited during their second trimester of pregnancy (M= 22.3 weeks gestation) and assigned to depressed (N= 83) and non-depressed groups based on a SCID diagnosis of depression. They were then given self-report measures on sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety and anger, and their urine was assayed for norepinephrine and cortisol. These measures were repeated during their third trimester (M= 32.4 weeks). Their newborns were then observed during sleep. During both the second and third trimesters, the depressed women had more sleep disturbances and higher depression, anxiety and anger scores. They also had higher norepinephrine and cortisol levels. The newborns of the depressed mothers also had more sleep disturbances including less time in deep sleep and more time in indeterminate (disorganized) sleep, and they were more active and cried/fussed more.We would like to thank the parents and infants who participated in this study. This Research was supported by a merit award (MH# 46586) and Senior Research Scientist Awards (MH# 00331 and AT# 001585) and a March of Dimes Grant (#12-FYO3-48) to Tiffany Field and funding from Johnson & Johnson Pediatric Institute to the Touch Research Institutes
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