34 research outputs found

    How do included and excluded students with SEBD function socially and academically after 1,5 year of special education services?

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    The present study tested three conflicting hypotheses as to how students with social/emotional/behavioural difficulties (SEBD), who showed similar social-emotional, behavioural and academic functioning prior to placement, function socially and academically after they have received additional support either in inclusive regular education or in exclusive special education. Thirty-six included and 15 excluded students with SEBD participated. We collected data from students and teachers with classroom surveys, individual testing sessions with students with SEBD, and from application files. Using Bayesian statistics, our results suggest that excluded students are better socially embedded in exclusive special education and that they perform better academically than comparable included students with SEBD. Special education services in exclusive settings may thus afford certain benefits to some students with SEBD, not typically found in regular education, which can be considered a first indication that there may be valid counterarguments against the ‘inclusion for all’ perspective on educational needs

    Патогенетические механизмы повреждений бета-клеток панкреатических островков при диабете и влияние прерывистой гипоксии

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    У щурів з експериментальним цукровим діабетом та впливом на них переривчастої гіпоксії вивчені особливості синтезу інсуліну, цитоархітектоніки бета-клітин та експресія маркерів апоптозу та проліферації. Кількість бета-клітин підвищується, концентрація інсуліну залишається в межах інтактного показника. Значною мірою підвищується вироблення антиапоптотичного білку Bcl2. Гіпокситерапія призводить до суттєвого підвищення проліферативної активності ендокриноцитів панкреатичних острівців.At rats with an experimental diabetes and influence on intermittent hypoxia, features of synthesis of insulin, cells-architectonics beta-cells and an expression of markers apoptotic and proliferative are studied. Amount beta-cells increase, and concentration of insulin remains border of a control indicator. The production of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 increase to a considerable extent. Intermittent hypoxia significantly increase the proliferative activity endokrinotsitis pancreatic islets

    The impact of teacher's self-efficacy and classroom externalising problem behaviors on emotional exhaustion:Between- and within-person associations

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    Teaching can be a challenging profession, which puts teachers at high risk for developing burnout symptoms, such as emotional exhaustion. In this study we aim to investigate the interplay between classroom externalising problem behaviours (as a job demand), teachers’ self-efficacy (as a job resource) and emotional exhaustion over a school year. Conducting three measurements during a school year among 103 Dutch primary education teachers, we examine the sensitivity for, and the individual development of, emotional exhaustion. Findings show that emotional exhaustion, classroom externalising problem behaviours, and teachers’ self-efficacy are stable constructs in teachers. Traditional (between-person) cross-lagged panel models indicate that teachers with low levels of self-efficacy are more likely to develop emotional exhaustion during the school year, compared to their colleagues. We found no evidence that teachers confronted with classroom externalising problem behaviours were more likely to develop emotional exhaustion. Random intercept (within-person) cross-lagged panel models indicate that teachers with high levels of classroom externalising problem behaviours do not show increased emotional exhaustion at a later time point. For self-efficacy and emotional exhaustion, we could not estimate the within-person model due to limited variance in the variables. Implications of these findings and suggestions for further research were discussed

    Effect of Key2Teach on Dutch teachers' relationships with students with externalizing problem behavior:A randomized controlled trial

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    The teacher-student relationship plays an important role in the academic and behavioral development of primary school children with externalizing problem behavior. However, such problem behavior often threatens the quality of the teacher-student relationship. Teacher-focused coaching intervention Key2Teach aims to improve elements of the relationship between teachers and students with externalizing problem behavior and consists of two phases and four building blocks. This intervention provides primary school teachers with insight into their mental representation of the relationship and opportunities to practice functional interaction skills. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), effects of Key2Teach on different aspects of the relationship between teachers and students with externalizing problem behavior were examined. In two cohorts, 103 dyads consisting of a teacher and a student with externalizing problem behavior in grades 3-6 were assessed three times during a school year. Fifty-three dyads received the intervention (intervention group), whereas 50 dyads received no intervention (control group). Data were collected on teacher-reported teacher-student closeness and conflict, and on teacher interaction skills in various domains. Results show a significant increase in closeness and a decrease in conflict as a result of Key2Teach, with substantial effect sizes. No effects on teacher interaction skills were found. This study indicates that Key2Teach may help teachers to improve elements of the relationship they have with students with externalizing problem behavior. Implications for practice and future research are discussed

    Developmental Links between Teacher-Child Closeness and Disobedience for Boys Placed in Special Education

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    The aim of this study was to examine developmental links between disobedience and teacher-child closeness in a sample of boys with psychiatric disorders (i.e., emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD)) and special educational needs who are placed in special education. More specifically, this study examined whether developmental links were different between boys with EBD (n = 150) versus boys with ASD (n = 122). Developmental links between disobedience and teacher-child closeness were investigated by incorporating a multi-informant perspective using teacher, child, and peer ratings and analyzed using autoregressive cross-lagged models across three waves within one school year. Results showed that in general, developmental links between teacher-child closeness and disobedience were stronger for boys with EBD than for boys with ASD. Specifically, boys with EBD experiencing less teacher-child closeness showed more disobedience, which in turn negatively affected their rela

    Correlation between cord blood bilirubin level and incidence of hyperbilirubinemia in term newborns

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    Background Discharging healthy term newborns from the hospital after delivery at increasingly earlier postnatal ages has recently become a common practice due to medical, social, and economic reasons, however it contributes to readmission because of jaundice. Objective To investigate the correlation between level of cord blood bilirubin and development of hyperbilirubinemia among healthy term newborns. Methods Prospective observational study was performed on 88 healthy term newborns. Cord blood was collected for the total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin level measurement and blood group test. Measurements of total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, and unconjugated bilirubin were repeated on the 5th day with serum sampling, or as soon as the newborn appeared to be jaundice. Results Subjects were categorized into hyperbilirubinemia and non-hyperbilirubinemia newborns. There was a correlation between cord blood and the 5th day bilirubin level. By ROC analysis, cord blood bilirubin level of 2:2.54 md/dL was determined to have high sensitivity (90.5%), specificity of 85%, and accuracy of 86.4%. Conclusions There is a correlation between cord blood bilirubin level and hyperbilirubinemia in healthy term newborns. Cord blood bilirubin level at or greater than 2.54 mg/dL can predict the development of hyperbilirubinemia

    A randomized controlled trial to examine the effects of the Tackling Teenage psychosexual training program for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder

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    Background: Previous research underscores the importance of psychosexual guidance for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Such guidance is provided in the Tackling Teenage Training (TTT) program, in which adolescents with ASD receive psycho-education and practice communicative skills regarding topics related to puberty, sexuality, and intimate relationships. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of the TTT program on (a) cognitive outcomes (i.e. psychosexual knowledge, and insight in interpersonal boundaries) and (b) behavioral outcomes (i.e. skills needed for romantic relationships and problematic sexual behavior). Methods: A total of 189 cognitively able adolescents with ASD, aged 12–18 years old, were randomized to an intervention condition (n = 95) or a waiting-list control condition (n = 94). We assessed outcomes using self-reported as well as parent-reported questionnaires at baseline (T1), posttreatment (T2; after 6 months), and follow-up (T3; after 12 months). Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed significant treatment effects for psychosexual knowledge and adequate insight in boundaries, both posttreatment and at follow-up. All adolescents increased significantly over time in their social responsiveness and decreased their problematic sexual behavior, irrespectively of condition. The TTT program was most effective for younger adolescents with ASD; following the TTT program resulted in higher psychosexual knowledge, and higher social functioning for these adolescents. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the TTT program is effective as a psycho-educational program to provide adolescents with ASD with the knowledge and insight they need to prepare themselves for a healthy psychosexual development. Further research is needed to investigate how this increased knowledge and insight can subsequently ameliorate improvements in romantic skills and prevent the development of problematic sexual behavior and victimization

    Teacher characteristics, social classroom relationships, and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment in special education

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    The goal of this study was to explore relations between teacher characteristics (i.e., competence and wellbeing); social classroom relationships (i.e., teacher–child and peer interactions); and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment. These relations were explored at both the individual and classroom levels among 414 children with emotional and behavioral disorders placed in special education. Two models were specified. In the first model, children's classroom adjustment was regressed on social relationships and teacher characteristics. In the second model, reversed links were examined by regressing teacher characteristics on social relationships and children's adjustment. Results of model 1 showed that, at the individual level, better social and emotional adjustment of children was predicted by higher levels of teacher–child closeness and better behavioral adjustment was predicted by both positive teacher–child and peer interactions. At the classroom level, positive social relationships were predicted by higher levels of teacher competence, which in turn were associated with lower classroom levels of social problems. Higher levels of teacher wellbeing were directly associated with classroom adaptive and maladaptive child outcomes. Results of model 2 showed that, at the individual and classroom levels, only the emotional and behavioral problems of children predicted social classroom relationships. At the classroom level, teacher competence was best predicted by positive teacher–child relationships and teacher wellbeing was best predicted by classroom levels of prosocial behavior. We discuss the importance of positive teacher–child and peer interactions for children placed in special education and suggest ways of improving classroom processes by targeting teacher competence

    Developmental links between disobedient behavior and social classroom relationships in boys with psychiatric disorders in special education

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    In mainstream education, positive relationships with teachers and peers have been found to positively influence children’s behavioral development. However, high levels of classroom behavior problems may hinder the formation of such positive relationships. Therefore, findings from mainstream education cannot be generalized to special education. The present study investigated the developmental links between disobedience and positive as well as negative relationships with teachers and peers among boys in restrictive special educational settings. At three assessment waves across one school year, teacher-reports of teacher-child closeness and conflict, and peer-reports of peer acceptance, rejection and disobedience were collected among 340 boys (mean age=10.1 years, SD=1.58, range=5–13) with psychiatric disorders receiving special education. Autoregressive cross-lagged models were fitted to explore the nature of these developmental links. The impact of boys’ age was examined using multiple group analyses. Findings supported the importance of teacher-child conflict, but not closeness, and positive and negative peer relationships for the development of boys’ disobedience, with a stronger effect of negative than positive relationships. However, teacher-child and peer relationships were not longitudinally related and the effect of boys’ age was minimal. This study extends prior research by suggesting that, despite differences in educational setting and severity of behavior problems between children in mainstream and special education, reducing negative classroom interactional patterns is most important in preventing the development of problematic classroom behavior in boys with severe social-emotional and behavioral difficulties
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