61 research outputs found

    Introdução dos Elementos da Harmonia Funcional na Aprendizagem da Guitarra

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    O presente relat√≥rio √© realizado no √Ęmbito da Unidade Curricular de Pr√°tica de Ensino Supervisionada, do Mestrado em Ensino de M√ļsica no Instituto Piaget de Viseu. O mesmo desenvolve-se em torno da introdu√ß√£o dos elementos da harmonia funcional na aprendizagem da guitarra. Enquanto estudante de guitarra cl√°ssica e como professor estagi√°rio no Conservat√≥rio Bomfim em Braga, observei alunos com dificuldades na identifica√ß√£o dos acordes da guitarra, bem como na identifica√ß√£o dos encadeamentos harm√≥nicos. Durante o meu percurso constatei a dificuldade em encontrar de forma estruturada os conceitos que enquadrassem todos os pontos relevantes para a aprendizagem e pr√°tica dos elementos da harmonia funcional no ensino da guitarra, pelo que me propus a investigar e trabalhar este tema. A harmonia funcional apresenta uma abordagem diferenciada de conceitos e pr√°ticas conhecidas, adaptadas a uma outra realidade expressiva. Cada acorde relaciona-se com o todo de um determinado centro tonal, sendo diferente da harmonia tradicional que classifica o acorde relacionando-o apenas com a posi√ß√£o do baixo na escala. O projeto de interven√ß√£o pedag√≥gica teve como metodologia uma Investiga√ß√£o-A√ß√£o, baseando-se num ciclo de quatro fases essenciais: planifica√ß√£o, a√ß√£o, observa√ß√£o e reflex√£o. Na minha interven√ß√£o, realizei dois question√°rios em plataforma digital google forms, um antes da interven√ß√£o, com o intuito de observar o conhecimento pr√©vio dos alunos em rela√ß√£o a este tema, e outro ap√≥s a mesma, procurando este analisar o conhecimento adquirido pelos estudantes, utilizando assim, as compet√™ncias adquiridas pelos alunos, os seus pontos de vista, como forma de observar o sucesso ou insucesso desta experi√™ncia. Procurei tamb√©m aproximar mais a rela√ß√£o entre alunos e professores, focando nas necessidades espec√≠ficas de cada aluno

    São Camilo de Léllis: Caridade e bondade na prestação do cuidado

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    O objeto do estudo √© a representa√ß√£o pict√≥rica do cuidado prestado por Camilo de L√©llis, tendo por objetivo: apresentar a trajet√≥ria de vida de Camilo de Lellis; mostrar os cuidados prestados por Camilo de L√©llis, por meio da representa√ß√£o pict√≥rica de Pierre Hubert Subleyras (1745) e comentar a trajet√≥ria dos cuidados por ele prestada, como contribui√ß√£o para a constru√ß√£o do conhecimento da Hist√≥ria da Enfermagem. M√©todo: Os passos seguidos para atendimento da investiga√ß√£o foram √† busca de literatura de ader√™ncia articulada √† representa√ß√£o pict√≥rica proposta. Isto implicou, em s√≠ntese, na apresenta√ß√£o da biografia de Camilo de L√©llis e a decodifica√ß√£o dos atributos em tela analisada. O resultado evidenciou o cuidado, para al√©m do corpo f√≠sico, mas da alma, na cura das enfermidades com normas e sistematiza√ß√£o no s√©culo XVIII.El objeto de estudio es la representaci√≥n pict√≥rica de los cuidados prestados por Camilo de Lelis, teniendo como objetivo: presentar la trayectoria de vida de Camillus de Lellis; mostrar los cuidados realizados por Camilo de L√©llis, por medio de la representaci√≥n pict√≥rica del Pierre Hubert Subleyras (1745) y comentar su trayectoria de los cuidados como contribuci√≥n a la construcci√≥n del conocimiento de la historia de la enfermer√≠a. M√©todo: los pasos seguidos para la investigaci√≥n se ci√Īeron a la b√ļsqueda de la literatura de la propuesta de adhesi√≥n articulada representaci√≥n pict√≥rica propuesta. Esto exigi√≥, en resumen, la presentaci√≥n de la biograf√≠a de Camilo de L√©llis y la descodificaci√≥n de los atributos de pantalla examinados. El resultado mostr√≥ el cuidado, adem√°s del cuerpo f√≠sico, sino el alma, la curaci√≥n de enfermedades con est√°ndares y sistematizaci√≥n en el siglo XVIII.The object of this study is the pictorial representation of the care provided by Camilo de L√©llis, which has as objective: to present the life trajectory of Camillus de Lellis; to show the care provided by Camilo de L√©llis, through the pictorial representation of Pierre Hubert Subleyras (1745) and comment the trajectory of caring given by him, as a contribution to the construction of the knowledge of the history of nursing. Method: steps followed for the investigation were the search of the literature of the articulated pictorial representation adhesion proposal. This entailed, in summary, a presentation of a biography of Camilo de L√©llis and the decoding of the screen attributes examined. The result showed a care of the soul, beyond the physical body, in healing of illnesses with standards and systematization in the 18th century

    Produção de matéria seca, composição química e radicular de leguminosas forrageiras tropicais semeadas por fezes bovinas

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    Objetivou-se avaliar a produ√ß√£o de mat√©ria seca da parte a√©rea e radicular e composi√ß√£o bromatol√≥gica de tr√™s leguminosas forrageiras tropicais (Clitorea ternatea, Macrotyloma axillare e Neonotonia wightii) que ap√≥s terem suas sementes passadas pelo trato digest√≥rio de bovinos, germinaram e se desenvolveram em placas fecais bovinas. O delineamento experimental adotado foi inteiramente casualizado, em um esquema fatorial 3 (esp√©cies) x 3 (intervalos de dispers√£o: entre 12 e 18; entre 18 e 24, entre 24 e 30 h), com quatro repeti√ß√Ķes. Foram oferecidos 50 g de sementes misturadas a 150 g de suplemento mineral para bovinos (5 animais) por repeti√ß√£o. As fezes bovinas foram coletadas e alocadas em vasos, onde permaneceram por 120 dias. Ao fim deste per√≠odo, as plantas presentes nas fezes foram contadas e cortadas e foram realizadas analises para determina√ß√£o da produ√ß√£o de mat√©ria seca da parte a√©rea e radicular, teor de prote√≠na bruta (PB), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e fibra em detergente √°cido (FDA). As plantas desenvolvidas nas fezes foram capazes de produzir 2,54 g de MS por planta. A esp√©cie soja perene apresentou a maior produ√ß√£o de mat√©ria seca da parte a√©rea (2,81 g/planta) e radicular (2,05 g/planta). Os teores de PB, FDN e FDA n√£o sofreram altera√ß√Ķes dentro dos per√≠odos de dispers√£o em que as sementes foram cultivadas

    Prototype of an affordable pressure-controlled emergency mechanical ventilator for COVID-19

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    We present a viable prototype of a simple mechanical ventilator intended as a last resort to ventilate COVID-19 patients. The prototype implements the pressure-controlled continuous mandatory ventilation mode (PC-CMV) with settable breathing rates, inspiration/expiration time ratios and FiO2 modulation. Although safe, the design aims to minimize the use of technical components and those used are common in industry, so its construction may be possible in times of logistical shortage or disruption or in areas with reduced access to technical materials and at a moderate cost, affordable to lower income countries. Most of the device can be manufactured by modest technical means and construction plans are provided.Comment: This version differs from version 2 in that it includes toxicological and bio-safety tests and updated electronic

    Early Holocene ritual complexity in South America: the archaeological record of Lapa do Santo (east-central Brazil)

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    Early Archaic human skeletal remains found in a burial context in Lapa do Santo in eastcentral Brazil provide a rare glimpse into the lives of hunter-gatherer communities in South America, including their rituals for dealing with the dead. These included the reduction of the body by means of mutilation, defleshing, tooth removal, exposure to fire and possibly cannibalism, followed by the secondary burial of the remains according to strict rules. In a later period, pits were filled with disarticulated bones of a single individual without signs of body manipulation, demonstrating that the region was inhabited by dynamic groups in constant transformation over a period of centuries

    Is it really advantageous to operate proximal femoral fractures within 48 h from diagnosis? ‚Äď A multicentric retrospective study exploiting COVID pandemic-related delays in time to surgery

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    Objectives: Hip fractures in the elderly are common injuries that need timely surgical management. Since the beginning of the pandemic, patients with a proximal femoral fracture (PFF) experienced a delay in time to surgery. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate a possible variation in mortality in patients with PFF when comparing COVID-19 negative versus positive. Methods: This is a multicentric and retrospective study including 3232 patients with PFF who underwent surgical management. The variables taken into account were age, gender, the time elapsed between arrival at the emergency room and intervention, pre-operative American Society of Anesthesiology score, pre-operative cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and 10-day/1-month/6-month mortality. For 2020, we had an additional column, ‚ÄúCOVID-19 swab positivity.‚ÄĚ Results: COVID-19 infection represents an independent mortality risk factor in patients with PFFs. Despite the delay in time-to-surgery occurring in 2020, no statistically significant variation in terms of mortality was detected. Within our sample, a statistically significant difference was not detected in terms of mortality at 6 months, in patients operated within and beyond 48 h, as well as no difference between those operated within or after 12/24/72 h. The mortality rate among subjects with PFF who tested positive for COVID-19 was statistically significantly higher than in patients with PFF who tested. COVID-19 positivity resulted in an independent factor for mortality after PFF. Conclusion: Despite the most recent literature recommending operating PFF patients as soon as possible, no significant difference in mortality was found among patients operated before or after 48 h from diagnosis

    Influenza Infectious Dose May Explain the High Mortality of the Second and Third Wave of 1918‚Äď1919 Influenza Pandemic

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    BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that the shift in case-fatality rate between waves during the 1918 influenza pandemic was due to a genetic change in the virus. In animal models, the infectious dose of influenza A virus was associated to the severity of disease which lead us to propose a new hypothesis. We propose that the increase in the case-fatality rate can be explained by the dynamics of disease and by a dose-dependent response mediated by the number of simultaneous contacts a susceptible person has with infectious ones. METHODS: We used a compartment model with seasonality, waning of immunity and a Holling type II function, to model simultaneous contacts between a susceptible person and infectious ones. In the model, infected persons having mild or severe illness depend both on the proportion of infectious persons in the population and on the level of simultaneous contacts between a susceptible and infectious persons. We further allowed for a high or low rate of waning immunity and volunteer isolation at different times of the epidemic. RESULTS: In all scenarios, case-fatality rate was low during the first wave (Spring) due to a decrease in the effective reproduction number. The case-fatality rate in the second wave (Autumn) depended on the ratio between the number of severe cases to the number of mild cases since, for each 1000 mild infections only 4 deaths occurred whereas for 1000 severe infections there were 20 deaths. A third wave (late Winter) was dependent on the rate for waning immunity or on the introduction of new susceptible persons in the community. If a group of persons became voluntarily isolated and returned to the community some days latter, new waves occurred. For a fixed number of infected persons the overall case-fatality rate decreased as the number of waves increased. This is explained by the lower proportion of infectious individuals in each wave that prevented an increase in the number of severe infections and thus of the case-fatality rate. CONCLUSION: The increase on the proportion of infectious persons as a proxy for the increase of the infectious dose a susceptible person is exposed, as the epidemic develops, can explain the shift in case-fatality rate between waves during the 1918 influenza pandemic.TD acknowledges the support of the Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia through grant PPCDT/AMB/55701/2004. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript

    Nationwide access to endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke in portugal

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    Publisher Copyright: Copyright Ordem dos M dicos 2021.Introduction: Since the publication of endovascular treatment trials and European Stroke Guidelines, Portugal has re-organized stroke healthcare. The nine centers performing endovascular treatment are not equally distributed within the country, which may lead to differential access to endovascular treatment. Our main aim was to perform a descriptive analysis of the main treatment metrics regarding endovascular treatment in mainland Portugal and its administrative districts. Material and Methods: A retrospective national multicentric cohort study was conducted, including all ischemic stroke patients treated with endovascular treatment in mainland Portugal over two years (July 2015 to June 2017). All endovascular treatment centers contributed to an anonymized database. Demographic, stroke-related and procedure-related variables were collected. Crude endovascular treatment rates were calculated per 100 000 inhabitants for mainland Portugal, and each district and endovascular treatment standardized ratios (indirect age-sex standardization) were also calculated. Patient time metrics were computed as the median time between stroke onset, first-door, and puncture. Results: A total of 1625 endovascular treatment procedures were registered. The endovascular treatment rate was 8.27/100 000 inhabitants/year. We found regional heterogeneity in endovascular treatment rates (1.58 to 16.53/100 000/year), with higher rates in districts closer to endovascular treatment centers. When analyzed by district, the median time from stroke onset to puncture ranged from 212 to 432 minutes, reflecting regional heterogeneity. Discussion: Overall endovascular treatment rates and procedural times in Portugal are comparable to other international registries. We found geographic heterogeneity, with lower endovascular treatment rates and longer onset-to-puncture time in southern and inner regions. Conclusion: The overall national rate of EVT in the first two years after the organization of EVT-capable centers is one of the highest among European countries, however, significant regional disparities were documented. Moreover, stroke-onset-to-first-door times and in-hospital procedural times in the EVT centers were comparable to those reported in the randomized controlled trials performed in high-volume tertiary hospitalspublishersversionpublishe

    Acesso a Tratamento Endovascular para Acidente Vascular Cerebral Isquémico em Portugal

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    Introduction: Since the publication of endovascular treatment trials and European Stroke Guidelines, Portugal has re-organized stroke healthcare. The nine centers performing endovascular treatment are not equally distributed within the country, which may lead to differential access to endovascular treatment. Our main aim was to perform a descriptive analysis of the main treatment metrics regarding endovascular treatment in mainland Portugal and its administrative districts. Material and Methods: A retrospective national multicentric cohort study was conducted, including all ischemic stroke patients treated with endovascular treatment in mainland Portugal over two years (July 2015 to June 2017). All endovascular treatment centers contributed to an anonymized database. Demographic, stroke-related and procedure-related variables were collected. Crude endovascular treatment rates were calculated per 100 000 inhabitants for mainland Portugal, and each district and endovascular treatment standardized ratios (indirect age-sex standardization) were also calculated. Patient time metrics were computed as the median time between stroke onset, first-door, and puncture. Results: A total of 1625 endovascular treatment procedures were registered. The endovascular treatment rate was 8.27/100 000 inhabitants/year. We found regional heterogeneity in endovascular treatment rates (1.58 to 16.53/100 000/year), with higher rates in districts closer to endovascular treatment centers. When analyzed by district, the median time from stroke onset to puncture ranged from 212 to 432 minutes, reflecting regional heterogeneity. Conclusion: The overall national rate of EVT in the first two years after the organization of EVT-capable centers is one of the highest among European countries, however, significant regional disparities were documented. Moreover, stroke-onset-to-first-door times and in-hospital procedural times in the EVT centers were comparable to those reported in the randomized controlled trials performed in high-volume tertiary hospitals.Introdu√ß√£o: A aprova√ß√£o do tratamento endovascular para o acidente vascular cerebral isqu√©mico obrigou √† reorganiza√ß√£o dos cuidados de sa√ļde em Portugal. Os nove centros que realizam tratamento endovascular n√£o est√£o distribu√≠dos equitativamente pelo territ√≥rio, o que poder√° causar acesso diferencial a tratamento. O principal objetivo deste estudo √© realizar uma an√°lise descritiva da frequ√™ncia e m√©tricas temporais do tratamento endovascular em Portugal continental e seus distritos. Material e M√©todos: Estudo de coorte nacional multic√™ntrico, incluindo todos os doentes com acidente vascular cerebral isqu√©mico submetidos a tratamento endovascular em Portugal continental durante um per√≠odo de dois anos (julho 2015 a junho 2017). Foram colhidos dados demogr√°ficos, relacionados com o acidente vascular cerebral e vari√°veis do procedimento. Taxas de tratamento endovascular brutas e ajustadas (ajuste indireto a idade e sexo) foram calculadas por 100 000 habitantes/ano para Portugal continental e cada distrito. M√©tricas de procedimento como tempo entre instala√ß√£o, primeira porta e pun√ß√£o foram tamb√©m analisadas. Resultados: Foram registados 1625 tratamentos endovasculares, indicando uma taxa bruta nacional de tratamento endovascular de 8,27/100 000 habitantes/ano. As taxas de tratamento endovascular entre distritos variaram entre 1,58 e 16,53/100 000/ano, com taxas mais elevadas nos distritos pr√≥ximos a hospitais com tratamento endovascular. O tempo entre sintomas e pun√ß√£o femural entre distritos variou entre 212 e 432 minutos. Conclus√£o: Portugal continental apresenta uma taxa nacional de tratamento endovascular elevada, apresentando, contudo, assimetrias regionais no acesso. As m√©tricas temporais foram compar√°veis com as observadas nos ensaios cl√≠nicos piloto
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