1,005 research outputs found

    First comparison of wave observations from CoMP and AIA/SDO

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    Waves have long been thought to contribute to the heating of the solar corona and the generation of the solar wind. Recent observations have demonstrated evidence of quasi-periodic longitudinal disturbances and ubiquitous transverse wave propagation in many different coronal environments. This paper investigates signatures of different types of oscillatory behaviour, both above the solar limb and on-disk, by comparing findings from the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) for the same active region. We study both transverse and longitudinal motion by comparing and contrasting time-distance images of parallel and perpendicular cuts along/across active region fan loops. Comparisons between parallel space-time features in CoMP Doppler velocity and transverse oscillations in AIA images are made, together with space-time analysis of propagating quasi-periodic intensity features seen near the base of loops in AIA. Signatures of transverse motions are observed along the same magnetic structure using CoMP Doppler velocity (Vphase=600-750km/s, P=3-6mins) and in AIA/SDO above the limb (P=3-8mins). Quasi-periodic intensity features (Vphase=100-200km/s, P=6-11mins) also travel along the base of the same structure. On the disk, signatures of both transverse and longitudinal intensity features were observed by AIA; both show similar properties to signatures found along structures anchored in the same active region three days earlier above the limb. Correlated features are recovered by space-time analysis of neighbouring tracks over perpendicular distances of <2.6Mm.Comment: 14 pages, 14 figures, 1 tabl

    Self-consistent nanoflare heating in model active regions:MHD avalanches

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    Straightened cylindrical models of coronal loops have been standard for decades, and shown to support nanoflare-like heating, but the influence of geometric curvature in models upon the heating produced has not been discussed in depth. Heating, its spatiotemporal distributions, and the associated mechanisms responsible are discussed, and compared with those from straightened models of a coronal loop. Previously, magnetohydrodynamic avalanches have been generalized to curved loops, and shown to be viable. From that study, the associated heating is analysed and discussed in depth. Heating is seen to arise from processes originally instigated, yet not dominated, by magnetic reconnection, producing bursty, aperiodic nanoflares, dispersed evenly throughout the corona, but with a modest bias away from footpoints. One novelty arising is the simultaneous yet independent occurrence of nanoflare-like events at disjoint sites along individual strands, anticipating some features recently seen in ‘campfires’ by Solar Orbiter. With a view to future refinements in the model and to the inclusion of additional physical effects, the implications of this analysis are discussed

    Can multi-threaded flux tubes in coronal arcades support a magnetohydrodynamic avalanche?

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    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities allow energy to be released from stressed magnetic fields, commonly modelled in cylindrical flux tubes linking parallel planes, but, more recently, also in curved arcades containing flux tubes with both footpoints in the same photospheric plane. Uncurved cylindrical flux tubes containing multiple individual threads have been shown to be capable of sustaining an MHD avalanche, whereby a single unstable thread can destabilise many. We examine the properties of multi-threaded coronal loops, wherein each thread is created by photospheric driving in a realistic, curved coronal arcade structure (with both footpoints of each thread in the same plane). We use three-dimensional MHD simulations to study the evolution of singleand multi-threaded coronal loops, which become unstable and reconnect, while varying the driving velocity of individual threads. Experiments containing a single thread destabilise in a manner indicative of an ideal MHD instability and consistent with previous examples in the literature. The introduction of additional threads modifies this picture, with aspects of the model geometry and relative driving speeds of individual threads affecting the ability of any thread to destabilise others. In both single- and multi-threaded cases, continuous driving of the remnants of disrupted threads produces secondary, aperiodic bursts of energetic release

    Nonlinear wave propagation and reconnection at magnetic X-points in the Hall MHD regime

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    The highly dynamical, complex nature of the solar atmosphere naturally implies the presence of waves in a topologically varied magnetic environment. Here, the interaction of waves with topological features such as null points is inevitable and potentially important for energetics. The low resistivity of the solar coronal plasma implies that non-MHD effects should be considered in studies of magnetic energy release in this environment. This paper investigates the role of the Hall term in the propagation and dissipation of waves, their interaction with 2D magnetic X-points and the nature of the resulting reconnection. A Lagrangian remap shock-capturing code (Lare2d) is used to study the evolution of an initial fast magnetoacoustic wave annulus for a range of values of the ion skin depth in resistive Hall MHD. A magnetic null-point finding algorithm is also used to locate and track the evolution of the multiple null-points that are formed in the system. Depending on the ratio of ion skin depth to system size, our model demonstrates that Hall effects can play a key role in the wave-null interaction. In particular, the initial fast-wave pulse now consists of whistler and ion-cyclotron components; the dispersive nature of the whistler wave leads to (i) earlier interaction with the null, (ii) the creation of multiple additional, transient nulls and, hence, an increased number of energy release sites. In the Hall regime, the relevant timescales (such as the onset of reconnection and the period of the oscillatory relaxation) of the system are reduced significantly, and the reconnection rate is enhanced.Comment: 13 pages, 10 figure

    Decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Salmonella enterica serotype typhi, United Kingdom.

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    In 1999, 23% of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi isolates from patients in the United Kingdom exhibited decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC 0.25-1.0 mg/L); more than half were also resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim. Increasing numbers of treatment failures have been noted. Most infections have been in patients with a recent history of travel to India and Pakistan

    Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping of Salmonella Enteritidis: a method suitable for rapid outbreak recognition

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    ObjectiveTo perform fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) analysis on phage type (PT) reference strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis), and S. Enteritidis PT 6 and 6a recent clinical isolates to determine its usefulness for primary characterization of clinical S. Enteritidis isolates, and then to determine whether FAFLP is suitable for rapid characterization of strains in an outbreak situation.MethodsTwenty-five PT reference strains of S. Enteritidis and 20 S. Enteritidis PT 6 and 6a clinical isolates were subjected to FAFLP analysis using the selective primer combinations Eco + 0–Mse + T and Eco + 0–Mse + TA.ResultsFAFLP successfully separated each one of the 25 S. Enteritidis PT strains into distinct profiles, while macrorestriction and PFGE using XbaI identified 20 pulsed-field profiles. FAFLP also resolved cases and outbreaks due to S. Enteritidis PTs 6 and 6a.ConclusionsThe resolving power of FAFLP was higher than that of PFGE. FAFLP is a highly discriminatory genotyping method and, in conjunction with phage typing for primary subdivision of S. Enteritidis, provides a rapid and powerful tool for strain differentiation, both for outbreak investigation and for epidemiologic surveillance

    The fractional integrated bi- parameter smooth transition autoregressive model

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    This paper introduces the fractionally integrated Bi-parameter smooth transition autoregressive model (FI-BSTAR model) as an extension of BSTAR model proposed by Siliverstovs (2005) and the fractionally integrated STAR model (FI-STAR model) proposed by van Dijk et al. (2002). Our FI-BSTAR model is able to simultaneously describe persistence and asymmetric smooth structural change in time series. An empirical application using monthly growth rates of the American producer price index is provided.Long Memory, Nonlinearity, Asymmetry, STAR models.

    Multiresistant Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- in Europe: a new pandemic strain?

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    A marked increase in the prevalence of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- with resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines (R-type ASSuT) has been noted in food-borne infections and in pigs/pig meat in several European countries in the last ten years. One hundred and sixteen strains of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- from humans, pigs and pig meat isolated in England and Wales, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the Netherlands were further subtyped by phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis to investigate the genetic relationship among strains. PCR was performed to identify the fljB flagellar gene and the genes encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines. Class 1 and 2 integrase genes were also sought. Results indicate that genetically related serovar 4,[5],12:i:- strains of definitive phage types DT193 and DT120 with ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamide and tetracycline resistance encoded by blaTEM, strA-strB, sul2 and tet(B) have emerged in several European countries, with pigs the likely reservoir of infection. Control measures are urgently needed to reduce spread of infection to humans via the food chain and thereby prevent the possible pandemic spread of serovar 4,[5],12:i:- of R-type ASSuT as occurred with S. Typhimurium DT104 during the 1990s