2,875 research outputs found

### Algebraic Approach to Constraint Satisfaction Problems

A constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) asks for an assignment of appropriate values to variables subject to a given set of constraints. Examples of CSPs are found in virtually every technical discipline. We would like to discover methods for deciding when a CSP is â€śeasy,â€ť or tractable and when it is â€śhardâ€ť or intractable. Theories from universal algebra have turned out to be applicable in obtaining results on the tractability of CSPs. Specifically, each CSP can be converted to an algebra. The so-called absorption property of an algebra plays a key role in proofs related to the complexity of the corresponding CSPs. We developed some methods that enabled us to classify those absorption-free 4-element members of a certain class of algebras, called commutative idempotent binars (CIBs), which are not known to be tractable. Moreover, we determined the absorbing subalgebras of each 4-element CIB that is not absorption-free. Previously, few examples of either absorption-free CIBs or CIBs with absorbing subalgebras were known. This recent progress has therefore added to the general knowledge of the tractability of algebras and their corresponding CSPs

### Superintendent and School Board Relations: Impacting Achievement through Collaborative Understanding of Roles and Responsibilities

One of the most important and influential persons in the governance structure of the local school district is the Superintendent of Schools. Functioning as the CEO of the district, the superintendent is responsible for a myriad of functions. Examples include daily operations inclusive of transportation and finance, curriculum and policy implementation, media relations, and empowering leaders. However, as Meador (2014) contends, a crucial role is that of board liaison. The Superintendent is responsible for keeping the board informed, making recommendations regarding district operations, and setting the board agenda. It is interesting to note that the superintendent does participate in board meetings, but in an advisory capacity. Finally, the superintendent is responsible for enacting all mandates approved by the school board

### Framing and Moral Motives: The Interaction Between Moral Foundations and Political Identity in Predicting Motives

Current research suggests that there are differences in the moral foundations of liberals and conservatives. Liberalsâ€™ moral foundations tend to focus on issues of fairness, equality, and social justice while conservativesâ€™ focus on issues of authority, purity, and social order. Framing political issues in the context of moral foundations such as harm or purity can cause a change in political attitudes. The current study examines whether framing issues in the context of harm or purity affects approach (social justice, self-reliance) and avoidance (social order, self-restraint) moral motives, and examines the role of high activation negative emotions in this process. It was expected that framing issues using the harm foundation, would increase social justice motives, especially among conservatives. Results showed that when political issues were framed to induce feelings of causing or avoiding harm, conservatives showed more motivation toward social justice concerns. In contrast, framing had no effect on the social justice motives of liberals. High activation negative emotions played no role in this relationship. Also, framing had no effect on self-reliance, social order, or self-restraint motives among conservatives or liberals. These results suggest that conservativesâ€™ social justice motives can be increased by framing political issues to induce feelings of causing or avoiding harm. This could be a consideration when developing political communication strategies to promote social justice motives

### Hybrid Two Dimensional Quantum Devices

This thesis describes measurements on hybrid material systems involving two dimensional (2D) materials and phenomena along with the development of a small, hermetically sealed cell. The hermetic cell is designed to assist with analyzing sensitive 2D materials outside of an inert environment. When working with van der Waals materials that are especially sensitive to oxygen or water, it can be difficult to identify usable thin flakes without exposing them to air. To help preserve materials for analysis in air, a capsule was designed that isolates the material in an inert environment. Although the capsule is hermetically sealed, the encapsulated material remains accessible to optical analysis; analysis that is crucial to device fabrication. The first system is a Josephson junction field effect transistor (JJ-FET) fabricated in epitaxial Al-InAs. The supercurrent through the junction in this system can be tuned by applying an external electric field with a gate. Typically, the gate dielectric is a thick oxide layer (50 nm) but the devices described here are able to achieve full supercurrent tunability, and comparable quality, with only a 5 nm thick layer of mechanically exfoliated 2D hexagonal boron nitride. The second set of measurements are on a superconductor/semiconductor devices based on germanium quantum wells with epitaxial Al contacts. These serve as the first steps toward realizing a many-qubit system that can leverage the high mobility, spin properties, and fabrication advantages of germanium. These measurements are of the magnetotransport characteristics of MBE grown, strained germanium quantum wells embeded in a SiGe heterostructure. The devices discussed here demonstrate suitable electrical properties for Josephson junction development towards the goal of a gatemon qubit

### An Investigation of Student Perspectives on Classroom Resource Usefulness

Central to the post-secondary education is the textbook, and central to complaints regarding post-secondary education is also the textbook. Textbook use and price are a serious issue at Minnesota State University, Mankato, and at other colleges and universities around the country. Concern regarding textbooks inspires students to become very vocal, filing complaint after complaint regarding the price, the quality, and the utilization of textbooks in the status quo. This is an issue that inflames the hearts (and empties the wallets) of many students, and therefore should be an issue of concern with the university. In two separate studies surveying students at MSU, it has come to our attention that textbooks are overpriced and underutilized, and something ought to be done to help remedy this problem
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