2,551 research outputs found

    On Coherence in Bragg-Primakoff Axion Photoconversion

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    Axions and axion-like pseudoscalar particles with dimension-5 couplings to photons exhibit coherent Bragg-Primakoff scattering with ordered crystals at keV energy scales. This provides for a natural detection technique in searches for axions produce in the Sun's interior. I will motivate the utility of dark matter direct detection experiments in searching for solar axions, emphasizing the role crystal-based detector technologies. I present an updated theoretical treatment of the Bragg-Primakoff photoconversion process for keV pseudoscalars, and address simultaneously the effects of absorption of final state photons in crystals on the loss of coherence, which can lead to large suppressive corrections to the event rate sensitivity for this detection technique. However, I also show that the Borrmann effect of anomalous absorption significantly lifts the suppression. This phenomenon is studied in Ge, NaI, and CsI crystal experiments and its impact on the the projected sensitivities of SuperCDMS, LEGEND, and SABRE to the solar axion parameter space. Lastly, I investigate the future reach of multi-ton scale crystal detectors and discuss strategies to maximize the discovery potential of experimental efforts in this vein.Comment: PhD Thesis. 75 pages, 22 figures. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2307.0486

    Tough Choices: How Principals Sustain Response to Intervention Programs During Times of Budgetary Constraint

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    The purpose of this study was to examine how principals effectively manage to sustain RTI programs in environments of budgetary constraint. The researcher utilized a qualitative approach while exploring this issue. Twenty-five elementary school principals from southeast Georgia were invited to participate in individual 60 - 90 minute interviews. The first ten elementary school principals with at least one year of experience who responded to the invitations were selected to participate in the interviews. Transcriptions from the interviews were then analyzed to identify themes and categories to be discussed in the findings. All of the principals in this study indicated that their schools had experienced changes due to budgetary constraints placed on them by the recent recession. The participants reported that these affects were felt in a variety of areas such as school personnel, professional development, the ability to provide materials, and special programs. Although all of the principals in the study indicated that their RTI programs had been impacted by budgetary constraints, they all indicated that they were managing to sustain their RTI programs through a variety of different strategies. Strategies involving utilization of school personnel, providing professional development, securing materials needed for RTI, and use of creative scheduling were all used by the principals in this study to sustain their RTI programs

    Transforming innovation for sustainability

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    The urgency of charting pathways to sustainability that keep human societies within a "safe operating space" has now been clarified. Crises in climate, food, biodiversity, and energy are already playing out across local and global scales and are set to increase as we approach critical thresholds. Drawing together recent work from the Stockholm Resilience Centre, the Tellus Institute, and the STEPS Centre, this commentary article argues that ambitious Sustainable Development Goals are now required along with major transformation, not only in policies and technologies, but in modes of innovation themselves, to meet them. As examples of dryland agriculture in East Africa and rural energy in Latin America illustrate, such "transformative innovation" needs to give far greater recognition and power to grassroots innovation actors and processes, involving them within an inclusive, multi-scale innovation politics. The three dimensions of direction, diversity, and distribution along with new forms of "sustainability brokering" can help guide the kinds of analysis and decision making now needed to safeguard our planet for current and future generations

    The Phillips Curve in Australia

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    In this paper we discuss the development of Phillips curves in Australia over the forty years since Phillips first estimated one using Australian data. We examine the central issues faced by researchers estimating Australian Phillips curves. These include the distinction between the short and long-run trade-offs between inflation and unemployment, and the changing level of the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (NAIRU), particularly in the 1970s. We estimate Phillips curves for prices and unit labour costs in Australia over the past three decades. These Phillips curves allow the NAIRU to change through time, and include a role for import prices and ‘speed-limit’ effects. The paper concludes by presenting an extended discussion of the changing role of the Phillips curve in the intellectual framework used to analyse inflation within the Reserve Bank of Australia over the past three decades.Phillips curve; inflation; unemployment; monetary policy

    Open-Label Taste-Testing Study to Evaluate the Acceptability of Both Strawberry-Flavored and Orange-Flavored Amylmetacresol/2,4-Dichlorobenzyl Alcohol Throat Lozenges in Healthy Children

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    BACKGROUND: Acute sore throat (pharyngitis) is one of the most common illnesses for which children are seen by primary care physicians. Most cases are caused by viruses and are benign and self-limiting. Clinically proven, over-the-counter throat lozenges provide rapid and effective relief of acute sore throat symptoms, and are increasingly important in self-management of this condition. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study (International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN34958871) was to evaluate the acceptability of two licensed, commercially available sore throat lozenges containing amylmetacresol and 2,4-dichlorobenzyl (AMC/DCBA)—one strawberry flavored and the other orange flavored—in healthy children. STUDY DESIGN: This was an open-label, single-dose, crossover, taste-testing study in children recruited via a clinical database and advertisements over a 3.5-week period. SETTING: Potentially eligible participants were invited to attend the taste-testing session at a clinic. PARTICIPANTS: At the screening session, which took place either before or on the day of taste testing, details of relevant medical history, medication, and demographics were recorded. Of the 108 screened subjects, 102 were recruited. These were healthy male and female children aged 6–12 years. INTERVENTION: Each child cleansed their palate with water and water biscuits before tasting a strawberry-flavored lozenge (Strepsils(®) strawberry sugar free, Reckitt Benckiser Healthcare Limited, Nottingham, UK; PL 00063/0395), which was sucked for 1 minute and then expelled. The orange-flavored lozenge (Strepsils(®) orange with vitamin C, Reckitt Benckiser Healthcare Limited, Nottingham, UK; PL 016242152) was tasted at least 15 minutes later following further cleansing of the palate. The spontaneous reaction of the child on tasting each lozenge was observed and recorded. Subjects were asked to indicate their liking for each lozenge, using a 7-point hedonic facial scale, and were required to answer a series of questions relating to what they liked and disliked about the taste and the feel of the lozenge in the mouth and throat. The primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects with a hedonic facial score of >4. Secondary endpoints included the spontaneous reaction of the child on tasting the lozenge and responses to questions related to taste. RESULTS: The taste of the lozenge was scored >4 (i.e. ‘good’, ‘really good’, or ‘super good’) by 85.3 % of subjects for the strawberry flavor and 49.0 % for the orange flavor (p < 0.0001). The mean (standard deviation) score was 5.72 (1) for the strawberry-flavored lozenge and 4.35 (2) for the orange-flavored lozenge. The proportion of subjects willing to take the lozenge again was 94 % for the strawberry flavor and 56 % for the orange flavor. CONCLUSIONS: Strawberry-flavored AMC/DCBA lozenges were liked by, and acceptable to, the majority of the children. AMC/DCBA orange-flavored lozenges were also liked by, and acceptable to, approximately half the children. Overall, both strawberry and orange would be suitable flavors for lozenges intended for children when they suffer from sore throat
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