283 research outputs found

    Morphing Schnyder drawings of planar triangulations

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    We consider the problem of morphing between two planar drawings of the same triangulated graph, maintaining straight-line planarity. A paper in SODA 2013 gave a morph that consists of O(n2)O(n^2) steps where each step is a linear morph that moves each of the nn vertices in a straight line at uniform speed. However, their method imitates edge contractions so the grid size of the intermediate drawings is not bounded and the morphs are not good for visualization purposes. Using Schnyder embeddings, we are able to morph in O(n2)O(n^2) linear morphing steps and improve the grid size to O(n)Ă—O(n)O(n)\times O(n) for a significant class of drawings of triangulations, namely the class of weighted Schnyder drawings. The morphs are visually attractive. Our method involves implementing the basic "flip" operations of Schnyder woods as linear morphs.Comment: 23 pages, 8 figure

    Functional mechanisms underlying pleiotropic risk alleles at the 19p13.1 breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility locus

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    A locus at 19p13 is associated with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Here we analyse 438 SNPs in this region in 46,451 BC and 15,438 OC cases, 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 73,444 controls and identify 13 candidate causal SNPs associated with serous OC (P=9.2 × 10-20), ER-negative BC (P=1.1 × 10-13), BRCA1-associated BC (P=7.7 × 10-16) and triple negative BC (P-diff=2 × 10-5). Genotype-gene expression associations are identified for candidate target genes ANKLE1 (P=2 × 10-3) and ABHD8 (P<2 × 10-3). Chromosome conformation capture identifies interactions between four candidate SNPs and ABHD8, and luciferase assays indicate six risk alleles increased transactivation of the ADHD8 promoter. Targeted deletion of a region containing risk SNP rs56069439 in a putative enhancer induces ANKLE1 downregulation; and mRNA stability assays indicate functional effects for an ANKLE1 3′-UTR SNP. Altogether, these data suggest that multiple SNPs at 19p13 regulate ABHD8 and perhaps ANKLE1 expression, and indicate common mechanisms underlying breast and ovarian cancer risk

    Search for leptophobic Z ' bosons decaying into four-lepton final states in proton-proton collisions at root s=8 TeV

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    Search for black holes and other new phenomena in high-multiplicity final states in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV