2,407 research outputs found

    An examination of the effectiveness of an early truancy intervention for reducing chronic absenteeism amongst at-risk students through the use of Regression Discontinuity analysis

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    Truancy is a major social problem affecting students, families, schools, and communities in the United States and is associated with low academic achievement, grade retention, and dropout. Truancy is also correlated with other adverse life outcomes including delinquency, substance abuse, and incarceration. Social work best practices literature suggests that truancy interventions should take place before habitual chronic truancy becomes a problem. There are few truancy preventions for elementary-age students that have been empirically assessed. Thus, this study examined the effectiveness of the Truancy Assessment and Service Centers intensive case management intervention for elementary-aged students (N = 700) using a quasi-experimental group design, Regression Discontinuity (RD). This study is the first known application of the RD design for truancy intervention assessment. One year of data previously collected from one urban TASC site in the Deep South was used to investigate whether participation in the truancy case management intervention reduced truancy among participants. Based on a pre-determined cut-off score, approximately half of the sample (n = 331) was assigned to the case management intervention, while the other half received a notification letter and warning. Both groups were monitored for the remainder of the school year. Truancy rates among participants in the control group remained at the pre-intervention levels, while truancy rates among those in the treatment group significantly declined (p \u3c .01). Further, cases in the truancy intervention group that were successfully closed were more likely to show a reduction in truancy than those that were not (p \u3c .001). Moreover, the findings indicated that participants referred to educational and social services were more likely to complete them and were more likely to show positive case outcomes (p. \u3c05). Although the truancy intervention successfully reduced truancy overall, it was less effective with non-White children and with children who had been previously retained. Future resources should be aimed bolstering school social work practice and influencing educational reform at the local, state, and federal levels. Additional well-controlled outcome research is needed to shed light on the components of truancy intervention that are associated with long-term positive outcomes for children

    Distinct neural mechanisms and temporal constraints govern a cascade of audiotactile interactions

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    Synchrony is a crucial cue indicating whether sensory signals are caused by single or independent sources. In order to be integrated and produce multisensory behavioural benefits, signals must co-occur within a temporal integration window (TIW). Yet, the underlying neural determinants and mechanisms of integration across asynchronies remain unclear. This psychophysics and electroencephalography study investigated the temporal constraints of behavioural response facilitation and neural interactions for evoked response potentials (ERP), inter-trial coherence (ITC), and time-frequency (TF) power. Participants were presented with noise bursts, ‘taps to the face’, and their audiotactile (AT) combinations at seven asynchronies: 0, ±20, ±70, and ±500 ms. Behaviourally we observed an inverted U-shape function for AT response facilitation, which was maximal for synchronous AT stimulation and declined within a ≤70 ms TIW. For ERPs, we observed AT interactions at 110 ms for near-synchronous stimuli within a ≤20 ms TIW and at 400 ms within a ≤70 ms TIW consistent with behavioural response facilitation. By contrast, AT interactions for theta ITC and ERPs at 200 ms post-stimulus were selective for ±70 ms asynchrony, potentially mediated via phase resetting. Finally, interactions for induced theta power and alpha/beta power rebound emerged at 800-1100 ms across several asynchronies including even 500 ms auditory leading asynchrony. In sum, we observed neural interactions that were confined to or extending beyond the behavioural TIW or specific for ±70 ms asynchrony. This diversity of temporal profiles and constraints demonstrates that multisensory integration unfolds in a cascade of interactions that are governed by distinct neural mechanisms

    The neural mechanisms of audiotactile binding depend on asynchrony

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    Asynchrony is a critical cue informing the brain whether sensory signals are caused by a common source and should be integrated or segregated. This psychophysics‐electroencephalography (EEG) study investigated the influence of asynchrony on how the brain binds audiotactile (AT) signals to enable faster responses in a redundant target paradigm. Human participants actively responded (psychophysics) or passively attended (EEG) to noise bursts, ‘taps‐to‐the‐face’, and their AT combinations at seven AT asynchronies: 0, ±20, ±70, and ±500ms. Behaviourally, observers were faster at detecting AT than unisensory stimuli within a temporal integration window: the redundant target effect was maximal for synchronous stimuli and declined within a ≤70ms AT asynchrony. EEG revealed a cascade of AT interactions that relied on different neural mechanisms depending on AT asynchrony. At small (≤20ms) asynchronies, AT interactions arose for evoked response potentials (ERPs) at 110ms and ~400ms post‐stimulus. Selectively at ±70ms asynchronies AT interactions were observed for the P200 ERP, theta‐band inter‐trial coherence (ITC) and power at ~200ms poststimulus. In conclusion, AT binding was mediated by distinct neural mechanisms depending on the asynchrony of the AT signals. Early AT interactions in ERPs and theta‐band ITC and power were critical for the behavioural response facilitation within a ≤±70ms temporal integration windo

    Nanofiber-based high-Q microresonator for cryogenic applications

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    We demonstrate a cryo-compatible, fully fiber-integrated, alignment-free optical microresonator. The compatibility with low temperatures expands its possible applications to the wide field of solid-state quantum optics, where a cryogenic environment is often a requirement. At a temperature of 4.6 K we obtain a quality factor of (9.9±0.7)×106\mathbf{(9.9 \pm 0.7) \times 10^6}. In conjunction with the small mode volume provided by the nanofiber, this cavity can be either used in the coherent dynamics or the fast cavity regime, where it can provide a Purcell factor of up to 15. Our resonator is therefore suitable for significantly enhancing the coupling between light and a large variety of different quantum emitters and due to its proven performance over a wide temperature range, also lends itself for the implementation of quantum hybrid systems.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figure

    Parental perspectives on ECEC settings that foster child well-being: a comparison across nine European countries

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    Parents play a vital role in identifying children’s needs for support and Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) features that support children’s well-being. This study examined parental perspectives on features of ECEC that foster young children’s well-being under and above the age of 3 years by interviewing 359 parents across nine European countries (England, Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, and Portugal). Results revealed that parental perspectives largely converged with quality features discussed in ECEC research. Process quality features were mentioned more frequently than structural features for all children 0- to 6-years-old in almost all countries. However, care-oriented features were mentioned more frequently for under 3 years, and educational-oriented features were mentioned more frequently for the older group. Regarding structural features, patterns of responses across the two age groups were similar in most countries. Age differences were not more pronounced in countries with a split governance system.publishedVersio