164 research outputs found

    Mapping aerial metal deposition in metropolitan areas from tree bark : a case study in Sheffield, England

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    We investigated the use of metals accumulated on tree bark for mapping their deposition across metropolitan Sheffield by sampling 642 trees of three common species. Mean concentrations of metals were generally an order of magnitude greater than in samples from a remote uncontaminated site. We found trivially small differences among tree species with respect to metal concentrations on bark, and in subsequent statistical analyses did not discriminate between them. We mapped the concentrations of As, Cd and Ni by lognormal universal kriging using parameters estimated by residual maximum likelihood ({\sc reml}). The concentrations of Ni and Cd were greatest close to a large steel works, their probable source, and declined markedly within 500~metres of it and from there more gradually over several kilometres. Arsenic was much more evenly distributed, probably as a result of locally mined coal burned in domestic fires for many years. Tree bark seems to integrate airborne pollution over time, and our findings show that sampling and analysing it are cost-effective means of mapping and identifying sources

    A de novo 2.9 Mb interstitial deletion at 13q12.11 in a child with developmental delay accompanied by mild dysmorphic characteristics

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    Background: Proximal deletions in the 13q12.11 region are very rare. Much larger deletions including this region have been described and are associated with complex phenotypes of mental retardation, developmental delay and various others anomalies. Results: We report on a 3-year-old girl with a rare 2.9 Mb interstitial deletion at 13q12.11 due to a de novo unbalanced t(13;14) translocation. She had mild mental retardation and relatively mild dysmorphic features such as microcephaly, flat nasal bridge, moderate micrognathia and clinodactyly of 5th finger. Molecular karyotyping revealed a deletion on the long arm of chromosome 13 as involving sub-bands 13q12.11, a deletion of about 2.9 Mb. Discussion: The clinical application of array-CGH has made it possible to detect submicroscopical genomic rearrangements that are associated with varying phenotypes.The description of more patients with deletions of the 13q12.11 region will allow a more precise genotype-phenotype correlation

    Alzheimer's disease: using gene/protein network machine learning for molecule discovery in olive oil

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    Alzheimer's disease (AD) poses a profound human, social, and economic burden. Previous studies suggest that extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) may be helpful in preventing cognitive decline. Here, we present a network machine learning method for identifying bioactive phytochemicals in EVOO with the highest potential to impact the protein network linked to the development and progression of the AD. A balanced classification accuracy of 70.3 ± 2.6% was achieved in fivefold cross-validation settings for predicting late-stage experimental drugs targeting AD from other clinically approved drugs. The calibrated machine learning algorithm was then used to predict the likelihood of existing drugs and known EVOO phytochemicals to be similar in action to the drugs impacting AD protein networks. These analyses identified the following ten EVOO phytochemicals with the highest likelihood of being active against AD: quercetin, genistein, luteolin, palmitoleate, stearic acid, apigenin, epicatechin, kaempferol, squalene, and daidzein (in the order from the highest to the lowest likelihood). This in silico study presents a framework that brings together artificial intelligence, analytical chemistry, and omics studies to identify unique therapeutic agents. It provides new insights into how EVOO constituents may help treat or prevent AD and potentially provide a basis for consideration in future clinical studies

    On the relations between historical epistemology and students’ conceptual developments in mathematics

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    There is an ongoing discussion within the research field of mathematics education regarding the utilization of the history of mathematics within mathematics education. In this paper we consider problems that may emerge when the historical epistemology of mathematics is paralleled to students’ conceptual developments in mathematics. We problematize this attempt to link the two fields on the basis of Grattan-Guinness’ distinction between “history” and “heritage”. We argue that when parallelism claims are made, history and heritage are often mixed up, which is problematic since historical mathematical definitions must be interpreted in its proper historical context and conceptual framework. Furthermore, we argue that cultural and local ideas vary at different time periods, influencing conceptual developments in different directions regardless of whether historical or individual developments are considered, and thus it may be problematic to uncritically assume a platonic perspective. Also, we have to take into consideration that an average student of today and great mathematicians of the past are at different cognitive levels

    Thorough investigation of the phenolic profile of reputable Greek honey varieties:varietal discrimination and floral markers identification using liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry

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    Honey is a highly consumed commodity due to its potential health benefits upon certain consumption, resulting in a high market price. This fact indicates the need to protect honey from fraudulent acts by delivering comprehensive analytical methodologies. In this study, targeted, suspect and non-targeted metabolomic workflows were applied to identify botanical origin markers of Greek honey. Blossom honey samples (n = 62) and the unifloral fir (n = 10), oak (n = 24), pine (n = 39) and thyme (n = 34) honeys were analyzed using an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-q-TOF-MS) system. Several potential authenticity markers were revealed from the application of different metabolomic workflows. In detail, based on quantitative targeted analysis, three blossom honey markers were found, namely, galangin, pinocembrin and chrysin, while gallic acid concentration was found to be significantly higher in oak honey. Using suspect screening workflow, 12 additional bioactive compounds were identified and semi-quantified, achieving comprehensive metabolomic honey characterization. Lastly, by combining non-targeted screening with advanced chemometrics, it was possible to discriminate thyme from blossom honey and develop binary discriminatory models with high predictive power. In conclusion, a holistic approach to assessing the botanical origin of Greek honey is presented, highlighting the complementarity of the three applied metabolomic approaches

    Dissolution and sorption processes on the surface of calcite in the presence of high Co2+ concentration

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    The interaction of the calcite surface with Co2+-rich aqueous solutions ([Co2+aq]initial = 1000 ppm, i.e., ca. 17 mM) was investigated by means of macroscopic experiments and surface spectroscopic techniques. In the case of the macroscopic experiments, calcite powder and monocrystals were immersed into solutions for different time periods (from 1 min to one month). The Ca concentrations in the filtrates was measured by means of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) while the interacted solids were studied using a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and 12C-rutherford backscattering spectrometry (12C-RBS). The macroscopic data showed a characteristic surface dissolution process, in parallel to the surface sorption processes. Adsorption and co-precipitation were seen for almost the entire immersion period for both calcite powder and monocrystals. The surface study by XPS (analyzed at a depth of approximately 12 nm) suggested that adsorption takes place in the first hour of the interaction, followed by incorporation of Co2+ into calcite surface layers, leading to the formation of a Co2+-bearing surface (co)precipitate, which occurs over a period of hours and days. The 12C-RBS measurements on calcite { 10 1 ÂŻ 4 } indicated that the thickness of this surface co-precipitate was 270 nm after one day and then stabilized at 320 nm after more than a week
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