45 research outputs found

    The Importance of Timing for Breaking Commuters’ Car Driving Habits

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    Multiple faces of cost recovery

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    Multiple faces of cost recover

    A classification system for teachers’ motivational behaviors recommended in self-determination theory interventions.

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    Teachers’ behavior is a key factor that influences students’ motivation. Many theoretical models have tried to explain this influence, with one of the most thoroughly researched being self-determination theory (SDT). We used a Delphi method to create a classification of teacher behaviors consistent with SDT. This is useful because SDT-based interventions have been widely used to improve educational outcomes. However, these interventions contain many components. Reliably classifying and labeling those components is essential for implementation, reproducibility, and evidence synthesis.We used an international expert panel (N = 34) to develop this classification system. We started by identifying behaviors from existing literature, then refined labels, descriptions, and examples using the Delphi panel’s input. Next, the panel of experts iteratively rated the relevance of each behavior to SDT, the psychological need that each behavior influenced, and its likely effect on motivation. To create a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of behaviors, experts nominated overlapping behaviors that were redundant, and suggested new ones missing from the classification. After three rounds, the expert panel agreed upon 57 teacher motivational behaviors (TMBs) that were consistent with SDT. For most behaviors (77%), experts reached consensus on both the most relevant psychological need and influence on motivation. Our classification system provides a comprehensive list of TMBs and consistent terminology in how those behaviors are labeled. Researchers and practitioners designing interventions could use these behaviors to design interventions, to reproduce interventions, to assess whether these behaviors moderate intervention effects, and could focus new research on areas where experts disagreed

    A global experiment on motivating social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic

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    Finding communication strategies that effectively motivate social distancing continues to be a global public health priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-country, preregistered experiment (n = 25,718 from 89 countries) tested hypotheses concerning generalizable positive and negative outcomes of social distancing messages that promoted personal agency and reflective choices (i.e., an autonomy-supportive message) or were restrictive and shaming (i.e., a controlling message) compared with no message at all. Results partially supported experimental hypotheses in that the controlling message increased controlled motivation (a poorly internalized form of motivation relying on shame, guilt, and fear of social consequences) relative to no message. On the other hand, the autonomy-supportive message lowered feelings of defiance compared with the controlling message, but the controlling message did not differ from receiving no message at all. Unexpectedly, messages did not influence autonomous motivation (a highly internalized form of motivation relying on one’s core values) or behavioral intentions. Results supported hypothesized associations between people’s existing autonomous and controlled motivations and self-reported behavioral intentions to engage in social distancing. Controlled motivation was associated with more defiance and less long-term behavioral intention to engage in social distancing, whereas autonomous motivation was associated with less defiance and more short- and long-term intentions to social distance. Overall, this work highlights the potential harm of using shaming and pressuring language in public health communication, with implications for the current and future global health challenges

    A global experiment on motivating social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Get PDF
    Finding communication strategies that effectively motivate social distancing continues to be a global public health priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-country, preregistered experiment (n = 25,718 from 89 countries) tested hypotheses concerning generalizable positive and negative outcomes of social distancing messages that promoted personal agency and reflective choices (i.e., an autonomy-supportive message) or were restrictive and shaming (i.e. a controlling message) compared to no message at all. Results partially supported experimental hypotheses in that the controlling message increased controlled motivation (a poorly-internalized form of motivation relying on shame, guilt, and fear of social consequences) relative to no message. On the other hand, the autonomy-supportive message lowered feelings of defiance compared to the controlling message, but the controlling message did not differ from receiving no message at all. Unexpectedly, messages did not influence autonomous motivation (a highly-internalized form of motivation relying on one’s core values) or behavioral intentions. Results supported hypothesized associations between people’s existing autonomous and controlled motivations and self-reported behavioral intentions to engage in social distancing: Controlled motivation was associated with more defiance and less long-term behavioral intentions to engage in social distancing, whereas autonomous motivation was associated with less defiance and more short- and long-term intentions to social distance. Overall, this work highlights the potential harm of using shaming and pressuring language in public health communication, with implications for the current and future global health challenges

    Understanding Repetitive Travel Mode Choices in a Stable Context: A Panel Study Approach

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    It is argued that most travel mode choices are repetitive and made in a stable context. As an example, the everyday use of public transport is analyzed based on a panel survey with a random sample of about 1300 Danish residents interviewed up to three times in the period 1998–2000. The use of public transport is traced back to attitudes towards doing so, beliefs about whether or not public transportation can cover one’s transport needs, and car ownership. The influence of these variables is greatly attenuated when past behavior is accounted for, however. For subjects without a car, behavior changes are in the direction of greater consistency with current attitudes and perceptions. For car owners, current attitudes are inconsequential. The temporal stability of transport behavior is also higher for car-owners than for non-owners

    Promoting public transport as a subscription service: Effects of a free month travel card

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    Newspapers, book clubs, telephone services and many other subscription services are often marketed to new customers by means of a free or substantially discounted trial period. This article evaluates this method as a means to promote commuting by public transport in a field experiment and based on a solid behavioral-theoretical framework. By measuring important antecedents and mediators, the applied approach offers important insights not only on what behavioral outcomes were produced by the intervention, but why they were produced. Copenhagen car owners received a free month travel card, either alone or together with a customized travel plan or a planning intervention. A control group receiving no intervention was also included. Attitudinal variables, car habits and travel behavior were measured before and immediately after the intervention and again six months later. The only intervention that had an effect was the free month travel card, which led to a significant increase in commuting by public transport. As expected, the effect was mediated through a change in behavioral intentions rather than a change in perceived constraints. As expected, the effect became weaker when the promotion offer had expired, but an effect was still evident five months later. Possible reasons and implications of this are discussed

    Breaking Car Use Habits: The Effectiveness of a Free One-Month Travelcard

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    This paper describes a field experiment designed to test a tool aimed to entice drivers to skip the habitual choice of the car and instead consider using (or at least trying) public transportation. About 1,000 automobile drivers in the greater Copenhagen region participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the results indicated that the intervention had a significant impact on drivers’ use of public transport. It also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (4 months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. These findings indicate that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final choice is consistent with their informed preferences, given the current price-quality relationships of the various options. Results from a questionnaire suggest that the trial experience did seemingly improve attitudes about commuting by public transportation, but that the trial experience was not sufficiently convincing to make average attitudes positive. A promotional offer such as the one tested here may be an effective way to reach potential customers who would use public transportation if they were fully informed, but only as a supplement to the basic marketing principle of offering a good service at a fair price
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