160 research outputs found

    An Introduction to Neural Data Compression

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    Neural compression is the application of neural networks and other machine learning methods to data compression. Recent advances in statistical machine learning have opened up new possibilities for data compression, allowing compression algorithms to be learned end-to-end from data using powerful generative models such as normalizing flows, variational autoencoders, diffusion probabilistic models, and generative adversarial networks. The present article aims to introduce this field of research to a broader machine learning audience by reviewing the necessary background in information theory (e.g., entropy coding, rate-distortion theory) and computer vision (e.g., image quality assessment, perceptual metrics), and providing a curated guide through the essential ideas and methods in the literature thus far

    Near-zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance

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    We investigate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in near-zero-field, where the Zeeman interaction can be treated as a perturbation to the electron mediated scalar interaction (J-coupling). This is in stark contrast to the high field case, where heteronuclear J-couplings are normally treated as a small perturbation. We show that the presence of very small magnetic fields results in splitting of the zero-field NMR lines, imparting considerable additional information to the pure zero-field spectra. Experimental results are in good agreement with first-order perturbation theory and with full numerical simulation when perturbation theory breaks down. We present simple rules for understanding the splitting patterns in near-zero-field NMR, which can be applied to molecules with non-trivial spectra.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figure

    Prebiotic supplementation of In Vitro fecal fermentations inhibits proteolysis by gut bacteria, and host diet shapes gut bacterial metabolism and response to intervention

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    Metabolism of protein by gut bacteria is potentially detrimental due to the production of toxic metabolites, such as ammonia, amines, p-cresol, and indole. The consumption of prebiotic carbohydrates results in specific changes in the composition and/or activity of the microbiota that may confer benefits to host well-being and health. Here, we have studied the impact of prebiotics on proteolysis within the gut in vitro. Anaerobic stirred batch cultures were inoculated with feces from omnivores (n = 3) and vegetarians (n = 3) and four protein sources (casein, meat, mycoprotein, and soy protein) with and without supplementation by an oligofructose-enriched inulin. Bacterial counts and concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), ammonia, phenol, indole, and p-cresol were monitored during fermentation. Addition of the fructan prebiotic Synergy1 increased levels of bifidobacteria (P = 0.000019 and 0.000013 for omnivores and vegetarians, respectively). Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) were significantly lower in fermenters with vegetarians’ feces (P = 0.004), reduced further by prebiotic treatment. Ammonia production was lower with Synergy1. Bacterial adaptation to different dietary protein sources was observed through different patterns of ammonia production between vegetarians and omnivores. In volunteer samples with high baseline levels of phenol, indole, p-cresol, and skatole, Synergy1 fermentation led to a reduction of these compounds

    Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Prebiotic Enriched Infant Formula—A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Eficàcia; Fórmula infantil; PrebiòticEficacia; Fórmula infantil; PrebióticoEfficacy; Infant formula; PrebioticThe present study aims to evaluate the effects of an infant formula supplemented with a mixture of prebiotic short and long chain inulin-type oligosaccharides on health outcomes, safety and tolerance, as well as on fecal microbiota composition during the first year of life. In a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study, n = 160 healthy term infants under 4 months of age were randomized to receive either an infant formula enriched with 0.8 g/dL of Orafti®Synergy1 or an unsupplemented control formula until the age of 12 months. Growth, fever (>38 °C) and infections were regularly followed up by a pediatrician. Digestive symptoms, stool consistency as well as crying and sleeping patterns were recorded during one week each study month. Fecal microbiota and immunological biomarkers were determined from a subgroup of infants after 2, 6 and 12 months of life. The intention to treat (ITT) population consisted of n = 149 infants. Both formulae were well tolerated. Mean duration of infections was significantly lower in the prebiotic fed infants (p < 0.05). The prebiotic group showed higher Bifidobacterium counts at month 6 (p = 0.006), and higher proportions of Bifidobacterium in relation to total bacteria at month 2 and 6 (p = 0.042 and p = 0.013, respectively). Stools of infants receiving the prebiotic formula were softer (p < 0.05). Orafti®Synergy1 tended to beneficially impact total daily amount of crying (p = 0.0594). Supplementation with inulin-type prebiotic oligosaccharides during the first year of life beneficially modulates the infant gut microbiota towards higher Bifidobacterium levels at the first 6 months of life, and is associated with reduced duration of infections.The clinical study was part of the EARNEST project (EARly Nutrition programming-long term follow up of Efficacy and Safety Trials and integrated epidemiological, genetic, animal, consumer and economic research), an EU-funded integrated project within the 6th Framework Programme (FOOD-CT-2005-007036). Within this project, Laboratorios Ordesa, Barcelona, Spain and BENEO-Orafti, Tienen, Belgium contributed to the overall funding of the SYNERGY-1 study

    Replacement of glycaemic carbohydrates by inulin-type fructans from chicory (oligofructose, inulin) reduces the postprandial blood glucose and insulin response to foods: Report of two double-blind, randomized, controlled trials

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    Purpose. Inulin-type fructans are recognized as prebiotic dietary fibres and classified as non-digestible carbohydrates that do not contribute to glycaemia. The aim of the present studies was to investigate the glycaemic response (GR) and insulinaemic response (IR) to foods in which sucrose was partially replaced by inulin or oligofructose from chicory. Methods. In a double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover design, 40â\u80\u9342 healthy adults consumed a yogurt drink containing oligofructose or fruit jelly containing inulin and the respective full-sugar variants. Capillary blood glucose and insulin were measured in fasted participants and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after starting to drink/eat. For each test food, the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for glucose and insulin was calculated and the GR and IR determined. Results. Consumption of a yogurt drink with oligofructose which was 20% reduced in sugars significantly lowered the glycaemic response compared to the full-sugar reference (iAUC120min 31.9 and 37.3 mmol/L/min, respectively; p <0.05). A fruit jelly made with inulin and containing 30% less sugars than the full-sugar variant likewise resulted in a significantly reduced blood glucose response (iAUC120min 53.7 and 63.7 mmol/L/min, respectively; p < 0.05). In both studies, the postprandial insulin response was lowered in parallel (p <0.05). The reduction of postprandial glycaemia was positively correlated to the proportion of sugars replaced by inulintype fructans (p < 0.001). Conclusions. In conclusion, the studies confirmed that substitution of glycaemic sugars by inulin or oligofructose from chicory may be an effective strategy to reduce the postprandial blood glucose response to foods

    RASER MRI: Magnetic resonance images formed spontaneously exploiting cooperative nonlinear interaction

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    The spatial resolution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is fundamentally limited by the width of Lorentzian point spread functions (PSF) associated with the exponential decay rate of transverse magnetization (1/T2*). Here we show a different contrast mechanism in MRI by establishing RASER (Radio-frequency Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) in imaged media. RASER imaging bursts emerge out of noise and without applying (Radio Frequency) RF pulses when placing spins with sufficient population inversion in a weak magnetic field gradient. A small difference in initial population inversion density creates a stronger image contrast than conventional MRI. This contrast is based on the cooperative nonlinear interaction between all slices. On the other hand, the cooperative nonlinear interaction gives rise to imaging artifacts, such as amplitude distortions and side lobes outside of the imaging domain. Both the contrast and the artifacts are demonstrated experimentally and predicted by simulations based on a proposed theory. This theory of RASER MRI is strongly connected to many other distinct fields related to synergetics and non-linear dynamics

    Exploring synchrony and chaos of parahydrogen-pumped two-compartment radio-frequency amplification by stimulated emission of radiation

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    A nuclear-spin-based RASER (radio-frequency amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) is an ideal experimental system to explore nonlinear interaction phenomena of nuclear spins coupled via virtual photons to a resonator. This is due to the RASER being stable for several hours, allowing for extended observation of these phenomena. Nonlinear phenomena in multimode RASERs range from mode oscillations in synchrony, frequency shifts, frequency combs, period doublings, and even chaos. These phenomena are observed in a parahydrogen-pumped two-compartment proton RASER. In two independently pumped compartments, the separation in frequency space between the two RASER modes is precisely controlled with a magnetic field gradient. By controlling the mode separation, we can select the type of nonlinear phenomena observed. A key finding is that the ranges of mode separation where chaos and synchrony occur are very close together. The experimental results are supported by numerical simulations, based on two-mode RASER equations

    RASER MRI: Magnetic resonance images formed spontaneously exploiting cooperative nonlinear interaction

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    The spatial resolution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is limited by the width of Lorentzian point spread functions associated with the transverse relaxation rate 1/T2*. Here, we show a different contrast mechanism in MRI by establishing RASER (radio-frequency amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) in imaged media. RASER imaging bursts emerge out of noise and without applying radio-frequency pulses when placing spins with sufficient population inversion in a weak magnetic field gradient. Small local differences in initial population inversion density can create stronger image contrast than conventional MRI. This different contrast mechanism is based on the cooperative nonlinear interaction between all slices. On the other hand, the cooperative nonlinear interaction gives rise to imaging artifacts, such as amplitude distortions and side lobes outside of the imaging domain. Contrast mechanism and artifacts are explored experimentally and predicted by simulations on the basis of a proposed RASER MRI theory
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