3,688 research outputs found

    Nature-Inspired Interconnects for Self-Assembled Large-Scale Network-on-Chip Designs

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    Future nano-scale electronics built up from an Avogadro number of components needs efficient, highly scalable, and robust means of communication in order to be competitive with traditional silicon approaches. In recent years, the Networks-on-Chip (NoC) paradigm emerged as a promising solution to interconnect challenges in silicon-based electronics. Current NoC architectures are either highly regular or fully customized, both of which represent implausible assumptions for emerging bottom-up self-assembled molecular electronics that are generally assumed to have a high degree of irregularity and imperfection. Here, we pragmatically and experimentally investigate important design trade-offs and properties of an irregular, abstract, yet physically plausible 3D small-world interconnect fabric that is inspired by modern network-on-chip paradigms. We vary the framework's key parameters, such as the connectivity, the number of switch nodes, the distribution of long- versus short-range connections, and measure the network's relevant communication characteristics. We further explore the robustness against link failures and the ability and efficiency to solve a simple toy problem, the synchronization task. The results confirm that (1) computation in irregular assemblies is a promising and disruptive computing paradigm for self-assembled nano-scale electronics and (2) that 3D small-world interconnect fabrics with a power-law decaying distribution of shortcut lengths are physically plausible and have major advantages over local 2D and 3D regular topologies

    A mobile data acquisition system

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    A mobile data aquisition (MobiDAQ) was developed for the ATLAS central hadronic calorimeter (TileCal). MobiDAQ has been designed in order to test the functionalities of the TileCal front-end electronics and to acquire calibration data before the final back-end electronics were built and tested. MobiDAQ was also used to record the first cosmic ray events acquired by an ATLAS subdetector in the underground experimental area

    Carnosine uptake in rat choroid plexus primary cell cultures and choroid plexus whole tissue from PEPT2 null mice

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    PEPT2 is functionally active and localized to the apical membrane of rat choroid plexus epithelial cells. However, little is known about the transport mechanisms of endogenous neuropeptides in choroid plexus, and the role of PEPT2 in this process. In the present study, we examined the uptake kinetics of carnosine in rat choroid plexus primary cell cultures and choroid plexus whole tissue from wild-type (PEPT2 +/+ ) and null (PEPT2 –/– ) mice. Our results indicate that carnosine is preferentially taken up from the apical as opposed to basolateral membrane of cell monolayers, and that basolateral efflux in limited. Transepithelial flux of carnosine was not distinguishable from that of paracellular diffusion. The apical uptake of carnosine was characterized by a high affinity ( K m  = 34 μ m ), low capacity ( V max  = 73 pmol/mg protein/min) process, consistent with that of PEPT2. The non-saturable component was small ( K d  = 0.063 μL/mg protein/min) and, under linear conditions, was only 3% of the total uptake. Studies in transgenic mice clearly demonstrated that PEPT2 was responsible for over 90% of carnosine's uptake in choroid plexus whole tissue. These findings elucidate the unique role of PEPT2 in regulating neuropeptide homeostasis at the blood–cerebrospinal fluid interface.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/65858/1/j.1471-4159.2004.02333.x.pd

    Measurements of Flavour Dependent Fragmentation Functions in Z^0 -> qq(bar) Events

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    Fragmentation functions for charged particles in Z -> qq(bar) events have been measured for bottom (b), charm (c) and light (uds) quarks as well as for all flavours together. The results are based on data recorded between 1990 and 1995 using the OPAL detector at LEP. Event samples with different flavour compositions were formed using reconstructed D* mesons and secondary vertices. The \xi_p = ln(1/x_E) distributions and the position of their maxima \xi_max are also presented separately for uds, c and b quark events. The fragmentation function for b quarks is significantly softer than for uds quarks.Comment: 29 pages, LaTeX, 5 eps figures (and colour figs) included, submitted to Eur. Phys. J.

    Search for Yukawa Production of a Light Neutral Higgs Boson at LEP

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    Within a Two-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM) a search for a light Higgs boson in the mass range of 4-12 GeV has been performed in the Yukawa process e+e- -> b bbar A/h -> b bbar tau+tau-, using the data collected by the OPAL detector at LEP between 1992 and 1995 in e+e- collisions at about 91 GeV centre-of-mass energy. A likelihood selection is applied to separate background and signal. The number of observed events is in good agreement with the expected background. Within a CP-conserving 2HDM type II model the cross-section for Yukawa production depends on xiAd = |tan beta| and xihd = |sin alpha/cos beta| for the production of the CP-odd A and the CP-even h, respectively, where tan beta is the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the Higgs doublets and alpha is the mixing angle between the neutral CP-even Higgs bosons. From our data 95% C.L. upper limits are derived for xiAd within the range of 8.5 to 13.6 and for xihd between 8.2 to 13.7, depending on the mass of the Higgs boson, assuming a branching fraction into tau+tau- of 100%. An interpretation of the limits within a 2HDM type II model with Standard Model particle content is given. These results impose constraints on several models that have been proposed to explain the recent BNL measurement of the muon anomalous magnetic moment.Comment: 24 pages, 9 figures, Submitted to Euro. Phys. J.

    Bose-Einstein Correlations in e+e- to W+W- at 172 and 183 GeV

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    Bose-Einstein correlations between like-charge pions are studied in hadronic final states produced by e+e- annihilations at center-of-mass energies of 172 and 183 GeV. Three event samples are studied, each dominated by one of the processes W+W- to qqlnu, W+W- to qqqq, or (Z/g)* to qq. After demonstrating the existence of Bose-Einstein correlations in W decays, an attempt is made to determine Bose-Einstein correlations for pions originating from the same W boson and from different W bosons, as well as for pions from (Z/g)* to qq events. The following results are obtained for the individual chaoticity parameters lambda assuming a common source radius R: lambda_same = 0.63 +- 0.19 +- 0.14, lambda_diff = 0.22 +- 0.53 +- 0.14, lambda_Z = 0.47 +- 0.11 +- 0.08, R = 0.92 +- 0.09 +- 0.09. In each case, the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. At the current level of statistical precision it is not established whether Bose-Einstein correlations, between pions from different W bosons exist or not.Comment: 24 pages, LaTeX, including 6 eps figures, submitted to European Physical Journal

    Determination of alpha_s using Jet Rates at LEP with the OPAL detector

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    Hadronic events produced in e+e- collisions by the LEP collider and recorded by the OPAL detector were used to form distributions based on the number of reconstructed jets. The data were collected between 1995 and 2000 and correspond to energies of 91 GeV, 130-136 GeV and 161-209 GeV. The jet rates were determined using four different jet-finding algorithms (Cone, JADE, Durham and Cambridge). The differential two-jet rate and the average jet rate with the Durham and Cambridge algorithms were used to measure alpha(s) in the LEP energy range by fitting an expression in which order alpah_2s calculations were matched to a NLLA prediction and fitted to the data. Combining the measurements at different centre-of-mass energies, the value of alpha_s (Mz) was determined to be alpha(s)(Mz)=0.1177+-0.0006(stat.)+-0.0012$(expt.)+-0.0010(had.)+-0.0032(theo.) \.Comment: 40 pages, 17 figures, Submitted to Euro. Phys. J.

    W+W- production and triple gauge boson couplings at LEP energies up to 183 GeV

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    A study of W-pair production in e+e- annihilations at Lep2 is presented, based on 877 W+W- candidates corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 57 pb-1 at sqrt(s) = 183 GeV. Assuming that the angular distributions of the W-pair production and decay, as well as their branching fractions, are described by the Standard Model, the W-pair production cross-section is measured to be 15.43 +- 0.61 (stat.) +- 0.26 (syst.) pb. Assuming lepton universality and combining with our results from lower centre-of-mass energies, the W branching fraction to hadrons is determined to be 67.9 +- 1.2 (stat.) +- 0.5 (syst.)%. The number of W-pair candidates and the angular distributions for each final state (qqlnu,qqqq,lnulnu) are used to determine the triple gauge boson couplings. After combining these values with our results from lower centre-of-mass energies we obtain D(kappa_g)=0.11+0.52-0.37, D(g^z_1)=0.01+0.13-0.12 and lambda=-0.10+0.13-0.12, where the errors include both statistical and systematic uncertainties and each coupling is determined setting the other two couplings to the Standard Model value. The fraction of W bosons produced with a longitudinal polarisation is measured to be 0.242+-0.091(stat.)+-0.023(syst.). All these measurements are consistent with the Standard Model expectations.Comment: 48 pages, LaTeX, including 13 eps or ps figures, submitted to European Physical Journal

    Search for Neutral Higgs Bosons in e+e- Collisions at sqrt(s) ~189GeV

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    A search for neutral Higgs bosons has been performed with the OPAL detector at LEP, using approximately 170 pb-1 of e+e- collision data collected at sqrt(s)~189GeV. Searches have been performed for the Standard Model (SM) process e+e- to H0Z0 and the MSSM processes e+e- to H0Z0, A0h0. The searches are sensitive to the b b-bar and tau antitau decay modes of the Higgs bosons, and also to the MSSM decay mode h0 to A0A0. OPAL search results at lower centre-of-mass energies have been incorporated in the limits we set, which are valid at the 95% confidence level. For the SM Higgs boson, we obtain a lower mass bound of 91.0 GeV. In the MSSM, our limits are mh>74.8GeV and mA>76.5GeV, assuming tan(beta)>1, that the mixing of the scalar top quarks is either zero or maximal, and that the soft SUSY-breaking masses are 1 TeV. For the case of zero scalar top mixing, we exclude values of tan(beta) between 0.72 and 2.19.Comment: 38 pages, 15 figures, submitted Euro. Phys. J.
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