2,393 research outputs found

    Thin n-in-p planar pixel sensors and active edge sensors for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

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    Silicon pixel modules employing n-in-p planar sensors with an active thickness of 200 ÎĽ\mum, produced at CiS, and 100-200 ÎĽ\mum thin active/slim edge sensor devices, produced at VTT in Finland have been interconnected to ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips. The thin sensors are designed for high energy physics collider experiments to ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. Moreover, the active edge technology of the VTT production maximizes the sensitive region of the assembly, allowing for a reduced overlap of the modules in the pixel layer close to the beam pipe. The CiS production includes also four chip sensors according to the module geometry planned for the outer layers of the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector to be operated at the HL-LHC. The modules have been characterized using radioactive sources in the laboratory and with high precision measurements at beam tests to investigate the hit efficiency and charge collection properties at different bias voltages and particle incidence angles. The performance of the different sensor thicknesses and edge designs are compared before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 1.4Ă—1016neq/cm21.4\times10^{16}n_{eq}/cm^{2}.Comment: In proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Position Sensitive Detectors, PSD10 201

    Nanoflare Evidence from Analysis of the X-Ray Variability of an Active Region Observed with Hinode/XRT

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    The heating of the solar corona is one of the big questions in astrophysics. Rapid pulses called nanoflares are among the best candidate mechanisms. The analysis of the time variability of coronal X-ray emission is potentially a very useful tool to detect impulsive events. We analyze the small-scale variability of a solar active region in a high cadence Hinode/XRT observation. The dataset allows us to detect very small deviations of emission fluctuations from the distribution expected for a constant rate. We discuss the deviations in the light of the pulsed-heating scenario.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

    Heavily Irradiated N-in-p Thin Planar Pixel Sensors with and without Active Edges

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    We present the results of the characterization of silicon pixel modules employing n-in-p planar sensors with an active thickness of 150 ÎĽ\mathrm{\mu}m, produced at MPP/HLL, and 100-200 ÎĽ\mathrm{\mu}m thin active edge sensor devices, produced at VTT in Finland. These thin sensors are designed as candidates for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade to be operated at the HL-LHC, as they ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. They are interconnected to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips. Moreover, the n-in-p technology only requires a single side processing and thereby it is a cost-effective alternative to the n-in-n pixel technology presently employed in the LHC experiments. High precision beam test measurements of the hit efficiency have been performed on these devices both at the CERN SpS and at DESY, Hamburg. We studied the behavior of these sensors at different bias voltages and different beam incident angles up to the maximum one expected for the new Insertable B-Layer of ATLAS and for HL-LHC detectors. Results obtained with 150 ÎĽ\mathrm{\mu}m thin sensors, assembled with the new ATLAS FE-I4 chip and irradiated up to a fluence of 4Ă—\times1015neq/cm2^{15}\mathrm{n}_{\mathrm{eq}}/\mathrm{cm}^2, show that they are excellent candidates for larger radii of the silicon pixel tracker in the upgrade of the ATLAS detector at HL-LHC. In addition, the active edge technology of the VTT devices maximizes the active area of the sensor and reduces the material budget to suit the requirements for the innermost layers. The edge pixel performance of VTT modules has been investigated at beam test experiments and the analysis after irradiation up to a fluence of 5Ă—\times1015neq/cm2^{15}\mathrm{n}_{\mathrm{eq}}/\mathrm{cm}^2 has been performed using radioactive sources in the laboratory.Comment: Proceedings for iWoRiD 2013 conference, submitted to JINS

    On the importance of background subtraction in the analysis of coronal loops observed with TRACE

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    In the framework of TRACE coronal observations, we compare the analysis and diagnostics of a loop after subtracting the background with two different and independent methods. The dataset includes sequences of images in the 171 A, 195 A filter bands of TRACE. One background subtraction method consists in taking as background values those obtained from interpolation between concentric strips around the analyzed loop. The other method is a pixel-to-pixel subtraction of the final image when the loop had completely faded out, already used by Reale & Ciaravella 2006. We compare the emission distributions along the loop obtained with the two methods and find that they are considerably different. We find differences as well in the related derive filter ratio and temperature profiles. In particular, the pixel-to-pixel subtraction leads to coherent diagnostics of a cooling loop. With the other subtraction the diagnostics are much less clear. The background subtraction is a delicate issue in the analysis of a loop. The pixel-to-pixel subtraction appears to be more reliable, but its application is not always possible. Subtraction from interpolation between surrounding regions can produce higher systematic errors, because of intersecting structures and of the large amount of subtracted emission in TRACE observations.Comment: 9 pages, 9 figure

    Production and Characterisation of SLID Interconnected n-in-p Pixel Modules with 75 Micrometer Thin Silicon Sensors

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    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 micrometer thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 micrometer thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tuning characteristics, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at a usage at the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC accelerator called HL-LHC, the results were obtained before and after irradiation up to fluences of 101610^{16} neq/cm2\mathrm{n}_{\mathrm{eq}}/\mathrm{cm}^2 (1 MeV neutrons).Comment: 16 pages, 22 figure

    Thin n-in-p pixel sensors and the SLID-ICV vertical integration technology for the ATLAS upgrade at the HL-LHC

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    The R&D activity presented is focused on the development of new modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The performance after irradiation of n-in-p pixel sensors of different active thicknesses is studied, together with an investigation of a novel interconnection technique offered by the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT in Munich, the Solid-Liquid-InterDiffusion (SLID), which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding. The pixel modules are based on thin n-in-p sensors, with an active thickness of 75 um or 150 um, produced at the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (MPI HLL) and on 100 um thick sensors with active edges, fabricated at VTT, Finland. Hit efficiencies are derived from beam test data for thin devices irradiated up to a fluence of 4e15 neq/cm^2. For the active edge devices, the charge collection properties of the edge pixels before irradiation is discussed in detail, with respect to the inner ones, using measurements with radioactive sources. Beyond the active edge sensors, an additional ingredient needed to design four side buttable modules is the possibility of moving the wire bonding area from the chip surface facing the sensor to the backside, avoiding the implementation of the cantilever extruding beyond the sensor area. The feasibility of this process is under investigation with the FE-I3 SLID modules, where Inter Chip Vias are etched, employing an EMFT technology, with a cross section of 3 um x 10 um, at the positions of the original wire bonding pads.Comment: Proceedings for Pixel 2012 Conference, submitted to NIM A, 6 page

    3D sensors for the HL-LHC

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    In order to increase its discovery potential, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator will be upgraded in the next decade. The high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) period demands new sensor technologies to cope with increasing radiation fluences and particle rates. The ATLAS experiment will replace the entire inner tracking detector with a completely new silicon-only system. 3D pixel sensors are promising candidates for the innermost layers of the Pixel detector due to their excellent radiation hardness at low operation voltages and low power dissipation at moderate temperatures. Recent developments of 3D sensors for the HL-LHC are presented.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures, International Workshops on Radiation Imaging Detectors 201

    Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity with an excellent response to treatment

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    Amiodarone is an anti-arrhythmic drug widely used, but its administration can be associated with several adverse side-effects. Among these, amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity (APT) occurs in 4-17% of cases and, if not early diagnosed and treated, may evolve towards pulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure. A 76 years-old-man went to the hospital for accidental trauma. The patient did not report respiratory symptoms but was suffering from atrial fibrillation treated with amiodarone 200 mg/day from three years (cumulative dose >150 gr). HRCT showed ground-glass opacities and nodules in both lungs. The patient underwent fibreoptic bronchoscopy with BAL. Cytologic examination of BALF sediment put in evidence foamy macrophages. The electronic microscopy revealed into the alveolar macrophages "… the presence of multilamellar intracytoplasmic bodies and lysosomes, loads of lipid material". LFTs showed a restrictive syndrome and an impairment of DLCO. Amiodarone discontinuation and steroid administration led to the regression of radiological lesions and the recovery of lung function. Patients taking amiodarone can experience APT. They should perform a basal chest x-ray with LFTs before starting therapy. Monitoring could reveal early the pulmonary toxicity, and patients can respond favourably to the treatment
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