506 research outputs found

    Investigation of the oxidation behavior of dispersion stabilized alloys when exposed to a dynamic high temperature environment

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    The oxidation behavior of TD-NiCr and TD-NiCrAlY alloys have been studied at 2000 and 2200 F in static and high speed flowing air environments. The TD-NiCrAlY alloys preoxidized to produce an Al2O3 scale on the surface showed good oxidation resistance in both types of environments. The TD-NiCr alloy which had a Cr2O3 oxide scale after preoxidation was found to oxidize more than an order of magnitude faster under the dynamic test conditions than at comparable static test conditions. Although Cr2O3 normally provides good oxidation protection, it was rapidly lost due to formation of volatile CrO3 when exposed to the high speed air stream. The preferred oxide arrangement for the dynamic test consisted of an external layer of NiO with a porous mushroom type morphology, an intermediate duplex layer of NiO and Cr2O3, and a continuous inner layer of Cr2O3 in contact with the alloy substrate. An oxidation model has been developed to explain the observed microstructure and overall oxidation behavior of all alloys

    Diffusion analysis for two-phase metal-matrix composite

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    Diffusion controlled filament matrix interaction in a metal matrix composite, where the filaments and matrix comprise a two phase binary alloy system, was mathematically modeled. The problem of a diffusion controlled, two phase moving interface by means of a one dimensional, variable grid, finite difference technique was analyzed. Concentration dependent diffusion coefficients and equilibrium solubility limits were used, and the change in filament diameter and compositional changes in the matrix were calculated as a function of exposure time at elevated temperatures. With the tungsten nickel (W-Ni) system as a model composite system, unidirectional composites containing from 0.06 to 0.44 initial filament volume fraction were modeled. Compositional changes in the matrix were calculated by superposition of the contributions from neighboring filaments. Alternate methods for determining compositional changes between first and second nearest neighbor filaments were also considered. The results show the relative importance of filament volume fraction, filament diameter, exposure temperature, and exposure time as they affect the rate and extent of filament matrix interaction

    Numerical analyses for treating diffusion in single-, two- and three-phase binary alloy systems

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    Numerical solutions were applicable for planar, cylindrical, or spherical geometries with any diffusion-zone size and any continuous variation of the diffusion coefficient with concentration. Special techniques were included in the analyses to account for differences in molal volumes, initiation and growth of an intermediate phase, disappearance of a phase, and the presence of an initial composition profile in the specimen. A major improvement in solution accuracy was achieved in the two phase analysis by employing a mass conservation criterion to establish the location of the interface rather than the conventional interface-flux-balance criterion. In the three phase analysis, computation time was minimized without sacrificing solution accuracy by treating the three phase problem as a two phase problem when the thickness of the intermediate phase was less than a preset small value. Three computer codes were developed to perform these analyses

    Effect of concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient on homogenization kinetics in multiphase binary alloy systems

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    Diffusion calculations were performed to establish the conditions under which concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient was important in single, two, and three phase binary alloy systems. Finite-difference solutions were obtained for each type of system using diffusion coefficient variations typical of those observed in real alloy systems. Solutions were also obtained using average diffusion coefficients determined by taking a logarithmic average of each diffusion coefficient variation considered. The constant diffusion coefficient solutions were used as reference in assessing diffusion coefficient variation effects. Calculations were performed for planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries in order to compare the effect of diffusion coefficient variations with the effect of interface geometries. In most of the cases considered, the diffusion coefficient of the major-alloy phase was the key parameter that controlled the kinetics of interdiffusion

    Correction factors for on-line microprobe analysis of multielement alloy systems

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    An on-line correction technique was developed for the conversion of electron probe X-ray intensities into concentrations of emitting elements. This technique consisted of off-line calculation and representation of binary interaction data which were read into an on-line minicomputer to calculate variable correction coefficients. These coefficients were used to correct the X-ray data without significantly increasing computer core requirements. The binary interaction data were obtained by running Colby's MAGIC 4 program in the reverse mode. The data for each binary interaction were represented by polynomial coefficients obtained by least-squares fitting a third-order polynomial. Polynomial coefficients were generated for most of the common binary interactions at different accelerating potentials and are included. Results are presented for the analyses of several alloy standards to demonstrate the applicability of this correction procedure

    NASA space materials research

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    The effect of the space environment on: (1) thermal control coatings and thin polymer films; (2) radiation stability of 250 F and 350 F cured graphite/epoxy composites; and (3) the thermal mechanical stability of graphite/epoxy, graphite/glass composites are considered. Degradation in mechanical properties due to combined radiation and thermal cycling is highlighted. Damage mechanisms are presented and chemistry modifications to improve stability are suggested. The dimensional instabilities in graphite/epoxy composites associated with microcracking during thermal cycling is examined as well as the thermal strain hysteresis found in metal-matrix composites

    Prediction of moisture and temperature changes in composites during atmospheric exposure

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    The effects of variations in diffusion coefficients, surface properties of the composite, panel tilt, ground reflection, and geographical location on the moisture concentration profiles and average moisture content of composite laminates were studied analytically. A heat balance which included heat input due to direct and sky diffuse solar radiation, ground reflection, and heat loss due to reradiation and convection was used to determine the temperature of composites during atmospheric exposure. The equilibrium moisture content was assumed proportional to the relative humidity of the air in the boundary layer of the composite. Condensation on the surface was neglected. Histograms of composite temperatures were determined and compared with those for the ambient environment

    Geometric relationships for homogenization in single-phase binary alloy systems

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    A semiempirical relationship is presented which describes the extent of interaction between constituents in single-phase binary alloy systems having planar, cylindrical, or spherical interfaces. This relationship makes possible a quick estimate of the extent of interaction without lengthy numerical calculations. It includes two parameters which are functions of mean concentration and interface geometry. Experimental data for the copper-nickel system are included to demonstrate the usefulness of this relationship

    A study of the diffusional behavior of a two-phase metal matrix composite exposed to a high temperature environment

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    The progress of diffusion-controlled filament-matrix interaction in a metal matrix composite where the filaments and matrix comprise a two-phase binary alloy system was studied by mathematically modeling compositional changes resulting from prolonged elevated temperature exposure. The analysis treats a finite, diffusion-controlled, two-phase moving-interface problem by means of a variable-grid finite-difference technique. The Ni-W system was selected as an example system. Modeling was carried out for the 1000 to 1200 C temperature range for unidirectional composites containing from 6 to 40 volume percent tungsten filaments in a Ni matrix. The results are displayed to show both the change in filament diameter and matrix composition as a function of exposure time. Compositional profiles produced between first and second nearest neighbor filaments were calculated by superposition of finite-difference solutions of the diffusion equations

    Influence of temper condition on the nonlinear stress-strain behavior of boron-aluminum

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    The influence of temper condition on the tensile and compressive stress-strain behavior for six boron-aluminum laminates was investigated. In addition to monotonic tension and compression tests, tension-tension, compression-compression, and tension--compression tests were conducted to study the effects of cyclic loading. Tensile strength results are a function of the laminate configuration; unidirectional laminates were affected considerably more than other laminates with some strength values increasing and others decreasing
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