523 research outputs found

    Emergent Biomarkers of Residual Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Low HDL-c and/or High Triglycerides and Average LDL-c Concentrations: Focus on HDL Subpopulations, Oxidized LDL, Adiponectin, and Uric Acid

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    This study intended to determine the impact of HDL-c and/or TGs levels on patients with average LDL-c concentration, focusing on lipidic, oxidative, inflammatory, and angiogenic profiles. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors (n = 169) were divided into 4 subgroups, combining normal and low HDL-c with normal and high TGs patients. The following data was analyzed: BP, BMI, waist circumference and serum glucose, Total-c, TGs, LDL-c, oxidized-LDL, total HDL-c and HDL subpopulations, paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, hsCRP, uric acid, TNF- őĪ , adiponectin, VEGF, and iCAM1. The two populations with increased TGs levels, regardless of the normal or low HDL-c, presented obesity and higher waist circumference, Total-c, LDL-c, Ox-LDL, and uric acid. Adiponectin concentration was significantly lower and VEGF was higher in the population with cumulative low values of HDL-c and high values of TGs, while HDL quality was reduced in the populations with impaired values of HDL-c and/or TGs, viewed by reduced large and increased small HDL subfractions. In conclusion, in a population with cardiovascular risk factors, low HDL-c and/or high TGs concentrations seem to be associated with a poor cardiometabolic profile, despite average LDL-c levels. This condition, often called residual risk, is better evidenced by using both traditional and nontraditional CV biomarkers, including large and small HDL subfractions, Ox-LDL, adiponectin, VEGF, and uric acid.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Effect of anthropic disturbances on the activity pattern of two generalist mesocarnivores inhabiting Mediterranean forestry plantations

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    Humans have been altering the Mediterranean landscapes for millennia. To diminish the probability of encounters with domestic animals, humans and their activities, many species adjust their behavior to become more nocturnal. Even habitat-generalist species, such as red fox and stone marten that are somehow tolerant to environmental changes, might be affected by anthropic disturbances. Nevertheless, only a small number of studies were implemented in Iberia targeting these mesocarnivores’ activity patterns, and fewer have assessed the temporal ecology of these species in Eucalyptus plantations, the current main forest cover in Portugal. Based on camera traps, we aimed to analyze: 1) the temporal and spatio-temporal activity patterns of red fox and stone marten; and 2) how they are affected by distinct human disturbances (i.e., humans, livestock, dogs, plantations, and hunting). Foxes presented a higher crepuscular activity, while martens were entirely nocturnal, suggesting some avoidance behavior. Both mesocarnivores showed a higher overlap with dogs’ activity than with humans or livestock. Foxes’ activity patterns vary between seasons and habitats but were not influenced by the hunting period. Results suggest that both mesocarnivores, besides setting apart their activity from humans related disturbances, also show a tendency to temporally avoid each other. While the increase of nocturnality may indicate an anthropic disturbance impact, a reduction of activity overlap between mesocarnivores may be a strategy to reduce competition. These results may help support the sustainable management of landscapes by highlighting critical periods where activity overlaps may occur, and thus the anthropic impacts on wildlife are higher.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Genetic ablation of inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate receptor type 2 (IP3R2) fails to modify disease progression in a mouse model of Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 3

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    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a rare neurodegenerative disease caused by an abnormal polyglutamine expansion within the ataxin-3 protein (ATXN3). This leads to neurodegeneration of specific brain and spinal cord regions, resulting in a progressive loss of motor function. Despite neuronal death, non-neuronal cells, including astrocytes, are also involved in SCA3 pathogenesis. Astrogliosis is a common pathological feature in SCA3 patients and animal models of the disease. However, the contribution of astrocytes to SCA3 is not clearly defined. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 (IP3R2) is the predominant IP3R in mediating astrocyte somatic calcium signals, and genetically ablation of IP3R2 has been widely used to study astrocyte function. Here, we aimed to investigate the relevance of IP3R2 in the onset and progression of SCA3. For this, we tested whether IP3R2 depletion and the consecutive suppression of global astrocytic calcium signalling would lead to marked changes in the behavioral phenotype of a SCA3 mouse model, the CMVMJD135 transgenic line. This was achieved by crossing IP3R2 null mice with the CMVMJD135 mouse model and performing a longitudinal behavioral characterization of these mice using well-established motor-related function tests. Our results demonstrate that IP3R2 deletion in astrocytes does not modify SCA3 progression.This work has been funded by National funds, through the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT)‚ÄĒproject UIDB/50026/2020 and UIDP/50026/2020, PTDC/NEUNMC/3648/2014 and COMPETE-FEDER (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-016818); fellowships to DCG (2021.08121.BD), DMF (SFRH/BD/147947/2019), JSC (SFRH/BD/140624/2018), ANC (SFRH/BPD/118779/2016), AVF (UMINHO/BIL-CNCG/2022/11), SGG (SFRH/BD/101298/2014), and JFV (2020.05109.BD); FCT Scientific Employment Stimulus (CEEC)‚ÄĒIndividual Call position to SDS (CEECIND/00685/2020); grants from the Bial Foundation (037/18) and ‚Äúthe la Caixa‚ÄĚ Foundation (LCF/PR/HR21/52410024) to JFO; and by the projects NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000013 and NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000023, supported by the Norte Portugal Regional Operational Programme (NORTE 2020), under the PORTUGAL 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). It was also supported by grants from the ICVS Scientific Microscopy Platform, a member of the national infrastructure PPBI‚ÄĒPortuguese Platform of Bioimaging (PPBI-POCI-01-0145-FEDER-022122 and national funds through the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT)

    MYOD1 involvement in myopathy

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    [Excerpt] Introduction Myogenic Differentiation 1 (MYOD1) encodes a transcription factor that plays an important role in myogenic determination into mature skeletal muscle [1]. The first loss-of-function mutation of MYOD1 in humans was described in three siblings with perinatal lethal fetal akinesia [2].[...]We thank the individual and family. Funding was provided by The Fonds de recherche du Québec - Santé (FRQS) and Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) to P.M.C., Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) with the fellowship SFRH/BD/84650/2010 to F.L. and Groupe Pasteur Mutualité Foundation (GPM Foundation) to M.M.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Disruption of the inositol phosphorylceramide synthase gene affects Trypanosoma cruzi differentiation and infection capacity

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    Sphingolipids (SLs) are essential components of all eukaryotic cellular membranes. In fungi, plants and many protozoa, the primary SL is inositol-phosphorylceramide (IPC). Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease (CD), a chronic illness for which no vaccines or effective treatments are available. IPC synthase (IPCS) has been considered an ideal target enzyme for drug development because phosphoinositol-containing SL is absent in mammalian cells and the enzyme activity has been described in all parasite forms of T. cruzi. Furthermore, IPCS is an integral membrane protein conserved amongst other kinetoplastids, including Leishmania major, for which specific inhibitors have been identified. Using a CRISPR-Cas9 protocol, we generated T. cruzi knockout (KO) mutants in which both alleles of the IPCS gene were disrupted. We demonstrated that the lack of IPCS activity does not affect epimastigote proliferation or its susceptibility to compounds that have been identified as inhibitors of the L. major IPCS. However, disruption of the T. cruzi IPCS gene negatively affected epimastigote differentiation into metacyclic trypomastigotes as well as proliferation of intracellular amastigotes and differentiation of amastigotes into tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes. In accordance with previous studies suggesting that IPC is a membrane component essential for parasite survival in the mammalian host, we showed that T. cruzi IPCS null mutants are unable to establish an infection in vivo, even in immune deficient mice

    Refining the phenotype associated with biallelic DNAJC21 mutations

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    Accepted manuscriptInherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) are caused by mutations in genes involved in genomic stability. Although they may be recognized by the association of typical clinical features, variable penetrance and expressivity are common, and clinical diagnosis is often challenging. DNAJC21, which is involved in ribosome biogenesis, was recently linked to bone marrow failure. However, the specific phenotype and natural history remain to be defined. We correlate molecular data, phenotype, and clinical history of 5 unreported affected children and all individuals reported in the literature. All patients present features consistent with IBMFS: bone marrow failure, growth retardation, failure to thrive, developmental delay, recurrent infections, and skin, teeth or hair abnormalities. Additional features present in some individuals include retinal abnormalities, pancreatic insufficiency, liver cirrhosis, skeletal abnormalities, congenital hip dysplasia, joint hypermobility, and cryptorchidism. We suggest that DNAJC21-related diseases constitute a distinct IBMFS, with features overlapping Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and Dyskeratosis congenita, and additional characteristics that are specific to DNAJC21 mutations. The full phenotypic spectrum, natural history, and optimal management will require more reports. Considering the aplastic anemia, the possible increased risk for leukemia, and the multisystemic features, we provide a checklist for clinical evaluation at diagnosis and regular follow-up.FCT‚ÄĒFunda√ß√£o para a Ci√™ncia e a Tecnologia (SFRH/BD/84650/2010)info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio
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