498 research outputs found

    Acute Stress Disorder in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence following exposure to a traumatic event.

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    Background: Acute stress disorder (ASD) was proposed to encapsulate traumatic stress reactions within the first few months of exposure to trauma. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of ASD in children and adolescents, and the extent to which assessment, demographic and trauma variables moderate this. Method: Searches of EMBASE, MEDLINE (PubMed), PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES and PILOTS were conducted to identify studies published between 1 st January 1994 and 1 st January 2018. Seventeen studies were identified as meeting inclusion criteria (N=2918 participants). Results: The pooled prevalence estimate for ASD was 16.5% (95% CI 10.6–23.4%), with considerable heterogeneity between studies (Q[16]=261.12, p < .001, I 2=95.3%). Risk of bias was unrelated to prevalence estimates. Studies that used a clinical interview (k=8) yielded a higher estimate (24.0%, 95% CI 13.8–36.0%) than those that used a questionnaire which adhered to the diagnostic algorithm for DSM-IV ASD (k=6; 6.8%, 95% CI 3.6–10.9%). Studies comprising older participants yielded greater prevalence estimates. Prevalence was significantly greater in studies where the majority of participants had been exposed to interpersonal trauma (27.9%, 95% CI 15.1–42.8%; k=5) compared to non-interpersonal trauma (12.8%, 95% CI 7.2–19.7%; k=12). Conclusions: This review suggests that a significant minority of trauma-exposed children and adolescents meet criteria for ASD (in particular youth exposed to interpersonal trauma), but the findings are limited by a large degree of heterogeneity. DSM-IV ASD-specific self-report questionnaire measures may be too insensitive for identifying youth with this disorder

    Emission-Line Galaxy Surveys as Probes of the Spatial Distribution of Dwarf Galaxies. I. The University of Michigan Survey

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    Objective-prism surveys which select galaxies on the basis of line-emission are extremely effective at detecting low-luminosity galaxies and constitute some of the deepest available samples of dwarfs. In this study, we confirm that emission-line galaxies (ELGs) in the University of Michigan (UM) objective-prism survey (MacAlpine et al. 1977-1981) are reliable tracers of large-scale structure, and utilize the depth of the samples to examine the spatial distribution of low-luminosity (MB>_{B} > -18.0) dwarfs relative to higher luminosity giant galaxies (MB_{B} \leq -18.0) in the Updated Zwicky Catalogue (Falco et al. 1999). New spectroscopic data are presented for 26 UM survey objects. We analyze the relative clustering properties of the overall starbursting ELG and normal galaxy populations, using nearest neighbor and correlation function statistics. This allows us to determine whether the activity in ELGs is primarily caused by gravitational interactions. We conclude that galaxy-galaxy encounters are not the sole cause of activity in ELGs since ELGs tend to be more isolated and are more often found in the voids when compared to their normal galaxy counterparts. Furthermore, statistical analyses performed on low-luminosity dwarf ELGs show that the dwarfs are less clustered when compared to their non-active giant neighbors. The UM dwarf samples have greater percentages of nearest neighbor separations at large values and lower correlation function amplitudes relative to the UZC giant galaxy samples. These results are consistent with the expectations of galaxy biasing.Comment: 17 pages, 4 tables, 10 figures. Accepted for publication in the Ap

    Tumor-specific T cells in human Merkel cell carcinomas: a possible role for Tregs and T cell exhaustion in reducing T cell responses

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    Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC) are rare but highly malignant skin cancers associated with a novel polyomavirus. MCC tumors were infiltrated by T cells, including effector, central memory and regulatory T cells. Infiltrating T cells showed markedly reduced activation as evidenced by reduced expression of CD69 and CD25. Treatment of MCC tumors in vitro with IL-2 and IL-15 led to T cell activation, proliferation, enhanced cytokine production and loss of viable tumor cells from cultures. Expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes showed TCR repertoire skewing and upregulation of CD137. MCC tumors implanted into immunodeficient mice failed to grow unless human T cells in the tumor grafts were depleted with denileukin diftitox, suggesting tumor-specific T cells capable of controlling tumor growth were present in MCC. Both CD4+ and CD8+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells were frequent in MCC. 50% of non-activated T cells in MCC expressed PD-1, a marker of T-cell exhaustion, and PD-L1 and PD-L2 were expressed by a subset of tumor dendritic cells and macrophages. In summary, we observed tumor-specific T cells with suppressed activity in MCC tumors. Agents that stimulate T cell activity, block Treg function or inhibit PD-1 signaling may be effective in the treatment of this highly malignant skin cancer

    Body Fluid Estimation Via Segmental Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Following Acute Resistance Exercise

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    Segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (S-MFBIA) estimates body composition and fluids by passing electrical currents through the body and can separate the body into distinct segments. The minimum required abstention from exercise before S-MFBIA is unclear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to monitor changes in total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), and extracellular water (ECW) estimated via S-MFBIA following acute, localized bouts of resistance exercise (RE). METHODS: Thirty-two female (n = 18; age: 22.7 ± 1.4 y; height: 167.5 ± 7.5 cm; body mass: 66.6 ± 14.5 kg; body fat: 30.3 ± 6.2%) and male (n= 14; age: 24.2 ± 2.9; height: 178.7 ± 5.3; body mass: 85.7 ± 7.8 kg; body fat: 19.6 ± 6.9%) resistance-trained volunteers completed three randomly assigned conditions in a crossover design. Each RE protocol (REUPPER or RELOWER) consisted of three exercises and began with two warm-up sets of 12-15 repetitions per exercise. This was followed by a RE circuit of 5 sets of 10 repetitions per exercise with a one-minute rest interval between circuits. In the resting (REST) condition, participants did not complete any physical activity. S-MFBIA was performed at five timepoints: pre-exercise, immediate post-exercise, 15-, 30-, and 60-minutes post-exercise. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models with a random intercept for participant. In all models, REST was the reference condition, and pre-exercise was the reference time point. RESULTS: Although body mass did not differ between conditions, condition by time interactions were observed for TBW, ICW, and ECW (p\u3c0.001 each), with the higher values observed at post-exercise time points in REUPPER as compared to the REST condition. Mean differences between REUPPER and REST for TBW, ICW, and ECW ranged from 0.6-1.0 kg, 0.4-0.6 kg, and 0.2-0.4 kg, respectively. Conversely, RELOWER did not alter fluid estimates. CONCLUSION: An acute increase in TBW, ICW, and ECW is detected by S-MFBIA after a single bout of upper body, but not lower body, RE. This could be due to the smaller initial diameter and greater relative change in diameter of the arms as compared to legs. Due to the potential of artificial body fluid changes, users should avoid exercise – particularly upper body exercise – prior to S-MFBIA assessments

    Concert recording 2015-04-26

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    [Track 01]. Catching shadows / Ivan Trevino -- [Track 02]. Variation in F-sharp minor, op. 24. Theme : Andante cantabile ; Variation I : Allegretto scherzando ; Variations III : Andante molto sostenuto ; Variation V : Vivo scherzando / Léon Stekke -- [Track 03]. Concerto in E minor. Allegro apassionoto / Felix Mendelssohn -- [Track 04]. Cantabile et presto / George Enesco -- [Track 05]. Poem / Charles Griffes -- [Track 06]. Legende / George Enesco -- [Track 07]. Violin concerto in A minor, op. 53. Allegro ma non troppo / Antonin Dvorâk -- [Track 08]. Fantasie concertante / Jacques Casérède

    Acute Resistance Exercise Influences Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Segmental Fat Mass Estimates

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    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an attractive tool for routine assessment of human body composition. However, there is also concern regarding how some variables, particularly exercise, may affect its measurements and therefore limit the conditions under which this technology can provide useful body composition data. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if acute, localized resistance exercise (RE) compromises the validity of BIA segmental fat mass (FM) estimates. METHODS: In a crossover design, 32 healthy, resistance trained adults (18 F, 14 M; age: 23.4 ± 2.3 y; height: 172.4 ± 8.7 cm; body mass: 74.9 ± 15.3 kg; body fat: 25.6 ± 8.4%) completed three conditions in a randomized order: lower-body resistance exercise (L), upper-body resistance exercise (U), and rest (R). The RE protocol included a warm-up consisting of 2 sets of 12-15 repetitions of 3 upper-body exercises (U), or 3 lower-body exercises (L), followed by 5 sets of 10 repetitions per exercise, with 1-minute rest intervals. The R condition involved no exercise. BIA (InBody 770) was completed immediately pre- and post-exercise and at 15-, 30-, and 60-minutes post-exercise. The effects of the acute RE session on BIA estimates of total and segmental FM were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models with condition and time specified as within-subject factors and a random intercept for participant. In all models, the reference groups were R for condition and the pre-exercise time point for time. RESULTS: Condition by time interactions were observed for total and segmental FM. Examination of model coefficients indicated that most condition by time interactions were attributable to differences in the U condition across time relative to the reference group (i.e., R condition at baseline). In relation to the reference group, mean decreases of 0.75 to 1.25 kg for total FM, 0.38 to 0.58 kg for trunk FM, 0.27 to 0.47 kg for leg FM, and 0.15 to 0.22 kg for arm FM were observed in the U condition (p≤0.001 for all). In contrast, no changes across time were observed in the L condition. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that an acute bout of localized RE influences BIA total and segmental FM estimates to an extent that can compromise accurate interpretation of the results. These data corroborate the need for a period of rest from physical activity, particularly upper body RE, prior to BIA body composition assessment

    Introductory programming: a systematic literature review

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    As computing becomes a mainstream discipline embedded in the school curriculum and acts as an enabler for an increasing range of academic disciplines in higher education, the literature on introductory programming is growing. Although there have been several reviews that focus on specific aspects of introductory programming, there has been no broad overview of the literature exploring recent trends across the breadth of introductory programming. This paper is the report of an ITiCSE working group that conducted a systematic review in order to gain an overview of the introductory programming literature. Partitioning the literature into papers addressing the student, teaching, the curriculum, and assessment, we explore trends, highlight advances in knowledge over the past 15 years, and indicate possible directions for future research

    Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer.

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    All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single cancer class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, 'kataegis', is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer, with potential implications for understanding of cancer aetiology, prevention and therapy

    SNAPSHOT USA 2019 : a coordinated national camera trap survey of the United States

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    This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.With the accelerating pace of global change, it is imperative that we obtain rapid inventories of the status and distribution of wildlife for ecological inferences and conservation planning. To address this challenge, we launched the SNAPSHOT USA project, a collaborative survey of terrestrial wildlife populations using camera traps across the United States. For our first annual survey, we compiled data across all 50 states during a 14-week period (17 August - 24 November of 2019). We sampled wildlife at 1509 camera trap sites from 110 camera trap arrays covering 12 different ecoregions across four development zones. This effort resulted in 166,036 unique detections of 83 species of mammals and 17 species of birds. All images were processed through the Smithsonian's eMammal camera trap data repository and included an expert review phase to ensure taxonomic accuracy of data, resulting in each picture being reviewed at least twice. The results represent a timely and standardized camera trap survey of the USA. All of the 2019 survey data are made available herein. We are currently repeating surveys in fall 2020, opening up the opportunity to other institutions and cooperators to expand coverage of all the urban-wild gradients and ecophysiographic regions of the country. Future data will be available as the database is updated at eMammal.si.edu/snapshot-usa, as well as future data paper submissions. These data will be useful for local and macroecological research including the examination of community assembly, effects of environmental and anthropogenic landscape variables, effects of fragmentation and extinction debt dynamics, as well as species-specific population dynamics and conservation action plans. There are no copyright restrictions; please cite this paper when using the data for publication.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe