5,593 research outputs found

    Accuracy of the Hartree-Fock method for Wigner molecules at high magnetic fields

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    Few-electron systems confined in two-dimensional parabolic quantum dots at high magnetic fields are studied by the Hartree-Fock (HF) and exact diagonalization methods. A generalized multicenter Gaussian basis is proposed in the HF method. A comparison of the HF and exact results allows us to discuss the relevance of the symmetry of the charge density distribution for the accuracy of the HF method. It is shown that the energy estimates obtained with the broken-symmetry HF wave functions become exact in the infinite magnetic-field limit. In this limit the charge density of the broken-symmetry solution can be identified with the classical charge distribution.Comment: to appear in EPJ

    Microborings in mid Cretaceous fish teeth

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    Fish teeth and other remains from the British Cretaceous contain abundant evidence for post-mortem colonization by endolithic organisms. The borings are here recognised as occurring in three morphotypes, including a flask-shaped form not previously recorded. There is strong evidence to suggest that each of these boring types shows a strong preference for a particular substrate histology. The damage and destruction of vertebrate remains by microborings is here considered to exert a major taphonomic control on microvertebrate assemblages. The relationships between the intensity of colonization of vertebrate material by endolithic organisms and palaeoenvironment have implications for using these bone microborings as palaeoenvironmental indicators

    A fundamental test of the Higgs Yukawa coupling at RHIC in A+A collisions

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    Searches for the intermediate boson, W±W^{\pm}, the heavy quantum of the Weak Interaction, via its semi-leptonic decay, W→e+ÎœW\to e +\nu, in the 1970's instead discovered unexpectedly large hadron production at high pTp_T, notably π0\pi^0, which provided a huge background of e±e^{\pm} from internal and external conversions. Methods developed at the CERN ISR which led to the discovery of direct-single-e±e^{\pm} in 1974, later determined to be from the semi-leptonic decay of charm which had not yet been discovered, were used by PHENIX at RHIC to make precision measurements of heavy quark production in p-p and Au+Au collisions, leading to the puzzle of apparent equal suppression of light and heavy quarks in the QGP. If the Higgs mechanism gives mass to gauge bosons but not to fermions, then a proposal that all 6 quarks are nearly massless in a QGP, which would resolve the puzzle, can not be excluded. This proposal can be tested with future measurements of heavy quark correlations in A+A collisionsComment: 12 pages, 16 figures, 26th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics, Ocho Rios, Jamaica WI, January 2-9, 2010. Corrected citation of 1974 direct single lepton discover

    Model for the on-site matrix elements of the tight-binding hamiltonian of a strained crystal: Application to silicon, germanium and their alloys

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    We discuss a model for the on-site matrix elements of the sp3d5s* tight-binding hamiltonian of a strained diamond or zinc-blende crystal or nanostructure. This model features on-site, off-diagonal couplings between the s, p and d orbitals, and is able to reproduce the effects of arbitrary strains on the band energies and effective masses in the full Brillouin zone. It introduces only a few additional parameters and is free from any ambiguities that might arise from the definition of the macroscopic strains as a function of the atomic positions. We apply this model to silicon, germanium and their alloys as an illustration. In particular, we make a detailed comparison of tight-binding and ab initio data on strained Si, Ge and SiGe.Comment: Submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Determinants of ageism against older adults: a systematic review

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    Ageism is a widespread phenomenon and constitutes a significant threat to older people’s well-being. Identifying the factors contributing to ageism is critical to inform policies that minimise its societal impact. In this systematic review, we gathered and summarised empirical studies exploring the key determinants of ageism against older people for a period of over forty years (1970–2017). A comprehensive search using fourteen databases identified all published records related to the umbrella concept of “ageism”. Reviewers independently screened the final pool to identify all papers focusing on determinants, according to a predefined list of inclusion and exclusion criteria. All relevant information was extracted and summarised following a narrative synthesis approach. A total of 199 papers were included in this review. We identified a total of 14 determinants as robustly associated with ageism. Of these, 13 have an effect on other-directed ageism, and one on self-directed ageism. The quality of contact with older people and the positive or negative presentation of older people to others emerged as the most robust determinants of other-directed ageism; self-directed ageism is mostly determined by older adults’ health status. Given the correlational nature of most studies included in this review, inferences on causality should be made cautiously.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio