13 research outputs found

    Social capital, income loss, and psychobehavioral responses amid COVID-19 : a population-based analysis

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    This study examined the associations of perceived social capital and income change since the outbreak with probable depression and preventive behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong. Random digit dialing recruited a population-representative sample of 3011 Hong Kong Chinese aged ≥ 15 years (mean = 44, 55% females) between February 25 and April 29 2020. Respondents reported social capital (perceived interpersonal trust, social harmony, and sense of belonging), income change since the outbreak (loss vs. gain/no change), depressive symptoms, preventive behaviors, and demographics. Controlling for sociodemographics, lack of perceived interpersonal trust was associated with probable depression and avoiding contact with people with respiratory symptoms. Lack of perceived sense of belonging was associated with probable depression and decreased odds of adopting preventive behaviors. Lack of perceived social harmony was associated with probable depression and increased odds of used face masks among respondents with income loss only. Our results suggest that social capital is related to lower risk of depression and to higher chance of used face masks particularly among those experiencing income loss related to COVID-19. Prevention of mental health problems and promotion of effective preventive behaviors could be implemented by focusing on support for those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged. View Full-Tex

    Psychiatric symptoms and behavioral adjustment during the COVID-19 pandemic : evidence from two population-representative cohorts

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    This study examined prevalences of anxiety and depression and their correlations with daily routines among Hong Kong Chinese during the COVID-19 pandemic. Random digit dialing recruited two population-representative samples of 6029 residents during a period of low infection and limited intervention (survey 1: n = 4021) and high incidence and intensive measures (survey 2: n = 2008). Prevalence of anxiety for survey 1 and survey 2 were 14.9% and 14% and depression were 19.6% and 15.3%, respectively. Increased odds of anxiety and depression were associated with disrupted routines and lower socioeconomic status in both surveys, whereas depression was inversely related to the novel preventive routine of avoiding going to crowded places in survey 1. The prevalences of anxiety and depression were higher than preceding public health/social crises. A heavier burden of psychiatric conditions was evidenced amongst people experiencing disrupted daily routines across different phases of the pandemic and without novel preventive routines in the early phase

    Probable anxiety and components of psychological resilience amid COVID-19 : a population-based study

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    Background This study examined the associations between components of psychological resilience with mental health at different levels of exposure to COVID-19 stressors. Methods A population-representative sample of 4,021 respondents were recruited and assessed between February 25th and March 19th, 2020. Respondents reported current anxiety symptoms (7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale [GAD-7]), cognitive components (perceived ability to adapt to change, tendency to bounce back after adversities) and behavioral components (regularity of primary and secondary daily routines) of resilience, worry about COVID-19 infection, and sociodemographics. Results Logistic regression revealed that cognitive and behavioral components of resilience were not correlated with probable anxiety (GAD-7≥10) among those reporting no worry. Among respondents who were worried, all resilient components were inversely associated with probable anxiety. Specifically, propensity to bounce back and regular primary routines were more strongly related to lower odds of probable anxiety among those reporting lower levels of worry. Limitations The cross-sectional design limits causal inference. Second, other resilient components and some key daily routines that could be related to better mental health were not assessed. Third, generalizability of the findings to other similar major cities is uncertain because cases and deaths due to COVID-19 in Hong Kong have been comparatively lower. Conclusions To foster mental health, cultivation of confidence in one's ability to adapt to change and a propensity to bounce back from hardship should be coupled with sustainment of regular daily routines. Such assessment and intervention protocols are more relevant to those who suffer heightened levels of exposure to COVID-19 stressors

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy v. group psychoeducation for people with generalised anxiety disorder: randomised controlled trial

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    Background: Research suggests that an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) course may be effective for generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Aims: To compare changes in anxiety levels among participants with GAD randomly assigned to MBCT, cognitive–behavioural therapy-based psychoeducation and usual care. Method: In total, 182 participants with GAD were recruited (trial registration number: CUHK_CCT00267) and assigned to the three groups and followed for 5 months after baseline assessment with the two intervention groups followed for an additional 6 months. Primary outcomes were anxiety and worry levels. Results: Linear mixed models demonstrated significant group × time interaction (F(4,148) = 5.10, P = 0.001) effects for decreased anxiety for both the intervention groups relative to usual care. Significant group × time interaction effects were observed for worry and depressive symptoms and mental health-related quality of life for the psychoeducation group only. Conclusions: These results suggest that both of the interventions appear to be superior to usual care for the reduction of anxiety symptoms

    Preterm postnatal complications and risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

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    Aim: To investigate the association between the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and preterm birth and determine how postnatal complications in children born preterm is associated with the risk of ADHD. Method: This population-based cohort study used data from the Hong Kong electronic medical records. We followed 359 614 children (48% female; 6–17 years old, mean 11 years 7 months, SD 3 years 2 months) born in public hospitals in Hong Kong from 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2014 and collected medical records and demographic details for mothers and children until 11th November 2020. Results: The risk of ADHD was 4.0% in children born at term and 5.1% in children born preterm. The odds ratio for ADHD was 2.08 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.64–2.64) for children born extremely preterm, 1.64 (95% CI 1.46–1.85) for children born very preterm, and 1.15 (95% CI 1.08–1.23) for children born late preterm. Among preterm postnatal complications, only early respiratory disease, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and intraventricular haemorrhage were significant predictors of ADHD after controlling for preterm birth, other risk factors, and sociodemographic variables. The excess risk of ADHD among children born very preterm or late preterm could be partly explained by respiratory disease. ROP partially mediated the risk of ADHD in children born very preterm. Interpretation: Children born preterm in all subcategories, from extremely preterm to late preterm, have increased risk of ADHD. Early respiratory infection partially mediates the risk of ADHD in children born preterm

    Internet-based and mobile-based cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Abstract Positive adjustment to chronic diseases reduces psychiatric comorbidity and enhances quality of life. Very little is known about the benefit of internet-based and mobile-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IM-CBT) on physical outcomes and its reciprocal interactions with psychiatric outcomes, the active therapeutic elements, and effect moderators among people with major chronic medical conditions. In this systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO: CRD42022265738), CINAHL of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Science are systematically searched up to 1 June 2022, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing IM-CBT against non-CBT control condition(s) among people with chronic disease(s). Primary outcomes include improvements in psychiatric symptoms (depressive, anxiety, PTSD symptoms, general psychological distress) from baseline to post-intervention and follow-ups. Secondary outcomes include improvements in physical distress (physical symptoms, functional impairment, self-rated ill health, objective physiological dysfunction). Among 44 RCTs (5077 patients with seven different chronic diseases), IM-CBT improves depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and general psychological distress at post-intervention and across follow-ups, and improves physical distress and functional impairment at post-intervention. Preliminary evidence suggests that behavioral modification and problem-solving could be necessary components to reduce psychiatric symptoms in IM-CBT, whereas cognitive restructuring, psychoeducation, and mindfulness elements relate to reduced physical distress. IM-CBT shows stronger benefits in chronic pain, cancer, arthritis, and cardiovascular disease, relative to other conditions. Changes in psychiatric symptoms and physical distress prospectively predict each other over time. IM-CBT is an effective intervention for comprehensive symptom management among people with chronic diseases

    Parental restriction reduces the harmful effects of in-bedroom electronic devices

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    Objective: To investigate whether school readiness could be affected by placing electronic devices (EDs) in children’s bedroom and whether the relationship was moderated by parental restriction and family socioeconomic status (SES). Design: This is a cross-sectional study with bedroom ED placement and parental restriction reported by parents. Multiple linear regressions were used to test the relationship between school readiness and ED placement. Multiple regression with interaction terms were used to test whether the effect was consistent with and without parental restriction. Setting: Kindergartens randomly selected from two districts of different socioeconomic backgrounds in Hong Kong, China. Patients: 556 young children attending the third year of kindergarten. Main outcome measures: Children’s school readiness was rated by teachers using the Chinese Early Development Instrument. Results: 556 preschoolers (mean age 5.46; 51.8% girls) from 20 kindergartens participated in this study. About 30% of parents placed at least one ED in their children’s bedroom. After controlling for sex and SES, the placement of television in the bedroom was associated with lower overall school readiness (β −1.11, 95% CI −1.80 to −0.42) and the placement of game console was associated with lower social competence (β−0.94, 95% CI −1.74 to −0.15). Such harmful effect was more prominent among lower SES families and could be partially alleviated with parental restriction. Conclusion: ED placement in children’s bedroom was associated with lower school readiness, particularly among lower SES families. Parental restriction might help to alleviate the harm

    Neurobehavioral Impairment in Pediatric Brain Tumor Survivors: A Meta-Analysis

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    Purpose: The neurocognitive outcomes of pediatric brain tumor survivors have been extensively studied but the risk and predictors for neurobehavioral impairment are less clearly defined. We systematically analyzed the rates of emotional, psychosocial, and attention problems in pediatric brain tumor survivors. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane were searched for articles published between January 2012 to April 2022. Eligible studies reported neurobehavioral outcomes for PBTS aged 2 to <23 years with a brain tumor diagnosis before 18 years of age. A random-effect meta-analysis was performed in R. Results: The search yielded 1187 unique publications, of which 50 were included in the quantitative analysis. The estimated risk of having emotional, psychosocial, and attention problems were 15% (95%CI 10–20%), 12% (95%CI 9–16%), and 12% (95%CI 9–16%), respectively. PBTS were more likely to have emotional difficulties (Hedge’s g = 0.43 [95%CI 0.34–0.52]), psychosocial problems (Hedge’s g = 0.46 [95%CI 0.33–0.58]), and attention problems (Hedge’s g = 0.48 [95%CI 0.34–0.63]) compared to normal/healthy control subjects. There was no significant difference in the rates of neurobehavioral impairment between children with and without history of cranial radiotherapy. Conclusions: PBTS are at elevated risk of neurobehavioral impairment. Neurobehavioral monitoring should be considered as the standard of care for PBTS
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