1,413 research outputs found

    Predicting Secondary Structures, Contact Numbers, and Residue-wise Contact Orders of Native Protein Structure from Amino Acid Sequence by Critical Random Networks

    Full text link
    Prediction of one-dimensional protein structures such as secondary structures and contact numbers is useful for the three-dimensional structure prediction and important for the understanding of sequence-structure relationship. Here we present a new machine-learning method, critical random networks (CRNs), for predicting one-dimensional structures, and apply it, with position-specific scoring matrices, to the prediction of secondary structures (SS), contact numbers (CN), and residue-wise contact orders (RWCO). The present method achieves, on average, Q3Q_3 accuracy of 77.8% for SS, correlation coefficients of 0.726 and 0.601 for CN and RWCO, respectively. The accuracy of the SS prediction is comparable to other state-of-the-art methods, and that of the CN prediction is a significant improvement over previous methods. We give a detailed formulation of critical random networks-based prediction scheme, and examine the context-dependence of prediction accuracies. In order to study the nonlinear and multi-body effects, we compare the CRNs-based method with a purely linear method based on position-specific scoring matrices. Although not superior to the CRNs-based method, the surprisingly good accuracy achieved by the linear method highlights the difficulty in extracting structural features of higher order from amino acid sequence beyond that provided by the position-specific scoring matrices.Comment: 20 pages, 1 figure, 5 tables; minor revision; accepted for publication in BIOPHYSIC

    eGenomics: Cataloguing our complete genome collection III

    Get PDF
    This meeting report summarizes the proceedings of the “eGenomics: Cataloguing our Complete Genome Collection III” workshop held September 11–13, 2006, at the National Institute for Environmental eScience (NIEeS), Cambridge, United Kingdom. This 3rd workshop of the Genomic Standards Consortium was divided into two parts. The first half of the three-day workshop was dedicated to reviewing the genomic diversity of our current and future genome and metagenome collection, and exploring linkages to a series of existing projects through formal presentations. The second half was dedicated to strategic discussions. Outcomes of the workshop include a revised “Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence” (MIGS) specification (v1.1), consensus on a variety of features to be added to the Genome Catalogue (GCat), agreement by several researchers to adopt MIGS for imminent genome publications, and an agreement by the EBI and NCBI to input their genome collections into GCat for the purpose of quantifying the amount of optional data already available (e.g., for geographic location coordinates) and working towards a single, global list of all public genomes and metagenomes

    Apolipoprotein E4 Frequencies in a Japanese Population with Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele has been reported to be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Previous neuropathological studies have demonstrated similar frequencies of the APOE ε4 allele in AD and DLB. However, the few ante-mortem studies on APOE allele frequencies in DLB have shown lower frequencies than post-mortem studies. One reason for this may be inaccuracy of diagnosis. We examined APOE genotypes in subjects with AD, DLB, and a control group using the latest diagnostic criteria and MRI, SPECT, and MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. METHODS: The subjects of this study consisted of 145 patients with probable AD, 50 subjects with probable DLB, and a control group. AD subjects were divided into two groups based on age of onset: early onset AD (EOAD) and late onset AD (LOAD). All subjects had characteristic features on MRI, SPECT, and/or myocardial scintigraphy. RESULTS: The rate of APOE4 carrier status was 18.3% and the frequency of the ε4 allele was 9.7% in controls. The rate of APOE4 carrier status and the frequency of the ε4 allele were 47% and 27% for LOAD, 50% and 31% for EOAD, and 42% and 31% for DLB, respectively. CONCLUSION: The APOE4 genotypes in this study are consistent with previous neuropathological studies suggesting accurate diagnosis of AD and DLB. APOE4 genotypes were similar in AD and DLB, giving further evidence that the ε4 allele is a risk factor for both disorders

    Searching for plasticity in dissociated cortical cultures on multi-electrode arrays

    Get PDF
    We attempted to induce functional plasticity in dense cultures of cortical cells using stimulation through extracellular electrodes embedded in the culture dish substrate (multi-electrode arrays, or MEAs). We looked for plasticity expressed in changes in spontaneous burst patterns, and in array-wide response patterns to electrical stimuli, following several induction protocols related to those used in the literature, as well as some novel ones. Experiments were performed with spontaneous culture-wide bursting suppressed by either distributed electrical stimulation or by elevated extracellular magnesium concentrations as well as with spontaneous bursting untreated. Changes concomitant with induction were no larger in magnitude than changes that occurred spontaneously, except in one novel protocol in which spontaneous bursts were quieted using distributed electrical stimulation

    Impact of radiotherapy on mandibular bone : a retrospective study of digital panoramic radiographs

    Get PDF
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of radiotherapy on mandibular bone tissue in head and neck cancer patients through an analysis of pixel intensity and fractal dimension values on digital panoramic radiographs.Materials and methods: Thirty patients with radiographic records from before and after 3-dimensional (3D) conformational radiotherapy were selected. A single examiner carried out digital analyses of pixel intensity values and fractal dimensions, with the areas of interest unilaterally located in the right angle medullary region of the mandible below the mandibular canal and posterior to the molar region.Results: Statistically significant decreases were observed in the mean pixel intensity (P=0.0368) and fractal dimension (P=0.0495) values after radiotherapy.Conclusion: The results suggest that 3D conformational radiotherapy for head and neck cancer negatively affected the trabecular microarchitecture and mandibular bone mass.peer-reviewe

    Rapidly detecting disorder in rhythmic biological signals: A spectral entropy measure to identify cardiac arrhythmias

    Full text link
    We consider the use of a running measure of power spectrum disorder to distinguish between the normal sinus rhythm of the heart and two forms of cardiac arrhythmia: atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. This spectral entropy measure is motivated by characteristic differences in the spectra of beat timings during the three rhythms. We plot patient data derived from ten-beat windows on a "disorder map" and identify rhythm-defining ranges in the level and variance of spectral entropy values. Employing the spectral entropy within an automatic arrhythmia detection algorithm enables the classification of periods of atrial fibrillation from the time series of patients' beats. When the algorithm is set to identify abnormal rhythms within 6 s it agrees with 85.7% of the annotations of professional rhythm assessors; for a response time of 30 s this becomes 89.5%, and with 60 s it is 90.3%. The algorithm provides a rapid way to detect atrial fibrillation, demonstrating usable response times as low as 6 s. Measures of disorder in the frequency domain have practical significance in a range of biological signals: the techniques described in this paper have potential application for the rapid identification of disorder in other rhythmic signals.Comment: 11 page

    Cellularly-Driven Differences in Network Synchronization Propensity Are Differentially Modulated by Firing Frequency

    Get PDF
    Spatiotemporal pattern formation in neuronal networks depends on the interplay between cellular and network synchronization properties. The neuronal phase response curve (PRC) is an experimentally obtainable measure that characterizes the cellular response to small perturbations, and can serve as an indicator of cellular propensity for synchronization. Two broad classes of PRCs have been identified for neurons: Type I, in which small excitatory perturbations induce only advances in firing, and Type II, in which small excitatory perturbations can induce both advances and delays in firing. Interestingly, neuronal PRCs are usually attenuated with increased spiking frequency, and Type II PRCs typically exhibit a greater attenuation of the phase delay region than of the phase advance region. We found that this phenomenon arises from an interplay between the time constants of active ionic currents and the interspike interval. As a result, excitatory networks consisting of neurons with Type I PRCs responded very differently to frequency modulation compared to excitatory networks composed of neurons with Type II PRCs. Specifically, increased frequency induced a sharp decrease in synchrony of networks of Type II neurons, while frequency increases only minimally affected synchrony in networks of Type I neurons. These results are demonstrated in networks in which both types of neurons were modeled generically with the Morris-Lecar model, as well as in networks consisting of Hodgkin-Huxley-based model cortical pyramidal cells in which simulated effects of acetylcholine changed PRC type. These results are robust to different network structures, synaptic strengths and modes of driving neuronal activity, and they indicate that Type I and Type II excitatory networks may display two distinct modes of processing information

    Ion Channel Density Regulates Switches between Regular and Fast Spiking in Soma but Not in Axons

    Get PDF
    The threshold firing frequency of a neuron is a characterizing feature of its dynamical behaviour, in turn determining its role in the oscillatory activity of the brain. Two main types of dynamics have been identified in brain neurons. Type 1 dynamics (regular spiking) shows a continuous relationship between frequency and stimulation current (f-Istim) and, thus, an arbitrarily low frequency at threshold current; Type 2 (fast spiking) shows a discontinuous f-Istim relationship and a minimum threshold frequency. In a previous study of a hippocampal neuron model, we demonstrated that its dynamics could be of both Type 1 and Type 2, depending on ion channel density. In the present study we analyse the effect of varying channel density on threshold firing frequency on two well-studied axon membranes, namely the frog myelinated axon and the squid giant axon. Moreover, we analyse the hippocampal neuron model in more detail. The models are all based on voltage-clamp studies, thus comprising experimentally measurable parameters. The choice of analysing effects of channel density modifications is due to their physiological and pharmacological relevance. We show, using bifurcation analysis, that both axon models display exclusively Type 2 dynamics, independently of ion channel density. Nevertheless, both models have a region in the channel-density plane characterized by an N-shaped steady-state current-voltage relationship (a prerequisite for Type 1 dynamics and associated with this type of dynamics in the hippocampal model). In summary, our results suggest that the hippocampal soma and the two axon membranes represent two distinct kinds of membranes; membranes with a channel-density dependent switching between Type 1 and 2 dynamics, and membranes with a channel-density independent dynamics. The difference between the two membrane types suggests functional differences, compatible with a more flexible role of the soma membrane than that of the axon membrane
    corecore