55 research outputs found

    Antibacterial Activity of Ethanol Extract of Spirulina platensis

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    Spirulina is a microalgae that has been widely used as various supplements and medicines because of its high nutritional content. The need for new antibacterial sources to solve the problem of antibiotic resistance, makes the potential of Spirulina as an antibacterial agent necessary to be researched. This study aims to analyze the antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of Spirulina platensis obtained from the Indonesian region against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Spirulina samples were macerated in ethanol solvent in a ratio of 1:10 (w / v). The antibacterial test used was the disc diffusion method with clindamycin positive control. Antibacterial test results showed that S. platensis in this study did not have antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus

    ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF RED PIGMENT ISOLATED FROM COASTAL ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI AGAINST MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA

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    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria infections become a serious problem for these several decades. To solve this issue, finding of new antibiotics candidate in an urgency. Natural pigment is known to has biological activity against pathogenic bacteria. Coastal fungi are unexplored source of natural pigment to fight MDR bacteria. This research was aimed to isolate coastal endophytic fungi from smooth ant plant (Hydophytum formicarum), to screen endophytic fungi which produce red pigment, to extract the red pigment, to determine antibacterial activity of the red pigment and to identify the coastal endophytic fungi producing the red pigment. In this study, 7 fungi were isolated as endophytic fungi from H. formicarum. There were 3 isolates which produced extracellular pigment i.e. RS 1A which produced red pigment, RS 3 produced black pigment and RS 6A produced yellow pigment.  Our study focused on red pigment which is produced by endophytic fungus strain RS 1A. The yield of red pigment was 8.8657% (w/w).  This study showed that red pigment had antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Proteus mirabilis strain MDR. Judging from molecular and morphological identification, the endophytic fungus strain RS 1A was identified as Aspergillus versicolor

    PENDUGAAN UMUR SIMPAN SERBUK MINUMAN FUNGSIONAL LINTAH LAUT (Discodoris sp.) DENGAN METODE ACCELERATED SHELF LIFE TEST(ASLT):MODEL ARRHENIUS

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    The Arrhenius model ASLT method is widely used to estimate the shelf life of food products that are easily damaged by the effects of chemical reactions, including fat oxidation, Maillard reactions, protein denaturation and so on. The aim of this study was to determine the best shelf life through stability testing. Testing shelf life was done by acceleration time or acceleration model using Arrhenius method. During the storage period, the product was stored in three different temperature conditions, ie, 30 ° C, 35 ° C and 45 ° C. Stability test performed on every 7 days observation of water content test (aw). Estimation of shelf life based on the critical parameter that is water activity value (aw) hence can be known save age of functional beverage powders sea slug of T2 have a longer shelf life when compared with  T1.Metode ASLT model Arrhenius banyak digunakan untuk pendugaan umur simpan produk pangan yang mudah rusak oleh akibat reaksi kimia, antara lain oksidasi lemak, reaksi Maillard, denaturasi protein dan sebagainya. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menentukan masa simpanterbaik melalui pengujian stabilitas. Pengujian masa simpan dilakukan dengan percepatan waktu atau model akselerasi menggunakan metode Arrhenius. Selama masa penyimpanan, produk disimpan pada tiga kondisi suhu yang berbeda, yaitu suhu 30°C, 35°C dan 45°C. Uji stabilitas yang dilakukan pada setiap 7 hari pengamatan uji kadar air (aw) terhadap hari ke-0 dan hari ke-60 penyimpanan. pendugaan umur simpan berdasarkan parameter kritis yaitu nilai water activity(aw)maka dapat diketahui umur simpan formula serbuk minuman dengan formula T2 memiliki umur simpan yang lebih lama bila dibandingkan dengan formula T1

    Antibacterial activity of Stichopus hermanii and Stichopus variegatus methanol extract

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    Since 500 years ago sea cucumber has been used as wound healing medicine. Sea cucumbers are thought to function as a cell growth factor and have the potential as an antibacterial agent. This study aims to determine whether the methanol extract of sea cucumber has antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa so that it can be used to help diabetic wound healing of people infected with the same bacteria. The extraction method used was maceration with methanol to dried frozen simplicia. The simplicia was obtained by freeze drying to liquid preparation of heated fresh sea cucumber. The antibacterial activity test was performed using well diffusion method. There were no any antibacterial activity found in the two methanol extracts of sea cucumber. Keywords: antibacterial agent, Stichopus hermanii, Stichopus variegatu

    Fraksinasi Flavonoid Spirulina platensis dengan Metode Kromatografi Lapis Tipis dan Aktivitas Inhibisi Enzim α-Glukosidase

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    Spirulina platensis is a type of Cyanobacterium microalgae that forms multicellular helicoidal filaments. Spirulina platensis contains primary and secondary metabolites. The type and amount of the active compound Spirulina platensis depends on the method of extraction, fractionation, and isolation. So far, there are not much research data related to the active compound of Spirulina platensis extract cultured on Walne. The purpose of this study was to use of thin layer chromatography (TLC) method to separate flavonoids from Spirulina platensis biomass extract cultured on Walne media and the activity of a-glucosidase enzyme inhibition using biomass, crude extract, active fraction of flavonoids and phycocyanins from Spirulina platensis. This research method is descriptive experimental, which the Spirulina platensis is cultured on 80 g/L NaNO3 modified Walne media, extracted by maceration, fractionated by TLC and isolated the active compound by Preparative TLC (PTLC). The analysis included fraction and isolation of flavonoids from Spirulina platensis. The results showed that the TLC could be used to identify the active compound of Spirulina platensis extract cultured on Walne. Fractionation of Spirulina platensis extract using stationary phase silica gel Si 60 GF254 and the best mobile phase with a combination of chloroform:ethyl acetate (6:4) and an Rf1 value of 0.58; Rf2 0.71; and Rf3 0.83, as well as yellow-orange spots. Isolation of the active compound of Spirulina platensis extract using PLTC stationary phase silica gel Si 60 PF254 and the best mobile phase combination eluent chloroform:ethyl acetate (9:1). RF value of Rf2 0.57; Rf3 0.86; and Rf4 0.93 with dark yellow-brown spots. The color of the spots from the PLTC results shows that the active compounds of Spirulina platensis extract are flavonoid compounds. Biomass, crude extract, phycocyanine extract and flavonoids from Spirulina do not have inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase enzyme.  Spirulina platensis merupakan jenis mikroalga Cyanobacterium yang membentuk filamen helicoidal multiseluler. Spirulina platensis mengandung senyawa metabolit primer dan sekunder. Jenis dan jumlah senyawa aktif Spirulina platensis tergantung pada metode ekstraksi, fraksinasi dan isolasi. Sejauh ini belum banyak data hasil penelitian terkait senyawa aktif ekstrak biomassa Spirulina platensis yang dikultur pada media Walne. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu penggunaan metode kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT) untuk memisahkan flavonoid ekstrak biomassa Spirulina platensis yang dikultur pada media Walne serta aktivitas inhibisi enzim α-glukosidase menggunakan biomassa, ekstrak kasar, fraksi aktif flavonoid dan fikosianin dari Spirulina platensis. Metode penelitian ini adalah eksprimental deksriptif dimana mikroalga Spirulina platensis dikultur pada media Walne modifikasi 80 g/L NaNO3, diekstraksi dengan maserasi, difraksinasi dengan KLT dan diisolasi senyawa aktif dengan KLT Preparatif (KLTP). Analisis yang dilakukan meliputi analisis fraksi dan isolasi flavonoid dari Spirulina platensis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan metode KLT dapat digunakan untuk mengindetifikasi senyawa aktif ekstrak Spirulina platensis yang dikultur pada media Walne. Fraksinasi ekstrak Spirulina platensis menggunakan fase diam silika gel Si 60 GF254 dan fase gerak kombinasi eluen terbaik kloroform:etil asetat (6:4) dan nilai Rf1 0,58; Rf2 0,71; dan Rf3 0,83, serta bercak berwarna kuning-oranye. Isolasi senyawa aktif ekstrak Spirulina platensis menggunakan KLTP fase diam silika gel Si 60 PF254 dan fase gerak kombinasi eluen terbaik kloroform:etil asetat (9:1). Nilai Rf2 0,57; Rf3 0,86; dan Rf4 0,93 dengan bercak berwarna kuning-cokelat gelap. Warna bercak hasil KLTP menunjukkan komponen senyawa aktif ekstrak Spirulina platensis berupa senyawa golongan flavonoid. Biomassa, ekstrak kasar, ekstrak fikosianin dan flavonoid dari Spirulina tidak memiliki aktivitas penghambatan terhadap enzim α-glukosidase

    Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Sea Cucumber Flesh

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    Sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus) is one of the Echinodermata phylum that growsalong Indonesian coastal. Sea cucumber is potential source of collagen. The purposes of thisresearch were to determine the optimal concentration of NaOH and CH3COOH solutionin collagen production and analyze the physicochemical characteristics of collagen fromS. variegatus. Yield of the collagen was 1.5% (based on wet weight basis), produced bypretreatment with NaOH 0,30%, hydrolysis with CH3COOH 0.10% and extracted usingdistilled water. Protein, moisture, and ash content of the collagen was 67.68%, 13.64%,and 4.15%, respectively. Collagen was extracted using distilled water at 45°C during 2hand still had triple helix structure ; pH 7.37 ; melting temperature 163.67°C and whiteness69.25%. The major amino acid content of collagen were glycine, alanine, proline andglutamic acid.Keywords: NaOH, collagen, Stichopus variegatus, FTIR

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    Glucosamines belong to the group of amino sugars and act as a precursor for the biosynthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids in the body. The chemical, biological, and fermented extraction of glucosamine has not yet yielded optimal results. Pressurized hydrolysis treatment is needed to increase the yield of glucosamine. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of pressurized acid glucosamine extract from vannamei shrimp shell. The characteristics observed included the chemical composition, yield, degree of deacetylation, spectrum of functional groups, heavy metal contamination, and appearance. The chemical and heavy metal composition indicate the quality of shrimp shell are of standard allowed. Chitosan had a moisture content of 4.62%, ash content of 0.31%, protein content of 3.03%, deacetylation degree of 78.44%, viscosity of 222 cPs, flaky appearance, brownish-white color, and odorless. Pressurized acid extraction yielded white brownish glucosamine powder. The highest glucosamine yield was found in the 5% HCl acid extraction treatment at a pressure of 0.45 atm. The best glucosamine was obtained from the combined treatment of acid and pressure with the yield and degree of deacetylation that complied with the quality requirements of glucosamine.Glukosamin merupakan suatu senyawa yang termasuk ke dalam gula amino dan berperan sebagai prekursor biosintesis protein glikosilat dan lipid di dalam tubuh. Ekstraksi glukosamin secara kimia, biologi, dan fermentasi, belum mendapatkan hasil yang optimal. Perlakuan hidrolisis bertekanan diperlukan untuk meningkatkan hasil dalam pembuatan glukosamin. Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan karakteristik glukosamin dari kitosan cangkang udang vaname yang diekstrak menggunakan perlakuan asam dengan tekanan. Kitosan cangkang udang vanamei diekstraksi menggunakan HCl 5% lalu diberi perlakuan dengan tekanan 0,45 atm dan tanpa tekanan pada suhu ±120°C . Karakteristik yang diamati meliputi komposisi kimia, rendemen, derajat deasetilasi, spektrum gugus fungsi, dan ketampakan. Cangkang udang yang digunakan memiliki kadar air (25,49±0,34%), abu (14,05±0,26%), dan protein (20,63±0,08%) . Kitosan udang vanamei memiliki kadar air (4,62%), abu (0,31%), protein (3,03%), derajat deasetilasi yaitu 78,44%, viskositas 222 cP, dan ketampakan berbentuk serpihan, warna putih kecokelatan dan tidak berbau. Glukosamin udang vanamei memiliki ketampakan berbentuk serbuk, dan warna putih kecokelatan. Persentase rendemen tertinggi pada glukosamin dengan tekanan 0,45 atm, yaitu 78,22%. Perlakuan pemberian tekanan dan tanpa tekanan pada ekstraksi glukosamin berpengaruh nyata terhadap rendemen, derajat deasetilasi, dan spektrum gugus fungsi glukosamin. Glukosamin terbaik diperoleh dari perlakuan ekstraksi kombinasi konsentrasi asam dan tekanan dengan hasil rendemen dan derajat deasetilasi yang telah sesuai dengan syarat mutu glukosamin

    Antioxidant and Atibacterial Activities of Nipah (Nypa fruticans) against Vibrio sp. Isolated From Mud Crab (Scylla sp.)

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    AbstractNipah (Nypa fruticans) is the potential plant for source of active compound such as antioksidant and antibacterial substances. The plants are dispersed in Sumatera, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku and Papua Island. The aim of this research were determine the antioxidant and antibacterial activity from of nipah (fruit and leaf) that it extraction with methanol, and than determine toxicity and active compound contained in this extract. Diffusion agar and DPPH method were use for antibacterial and antioxsidant assay, respectively. Antioxsidant activity from nipah’s leaf extract was more effective (22,5 μg/mL) than nipah’s fruit extract (415 μg/mL). This activity to be classified to the strong antioxidant activity (IC50<50 μg/mL). The antibacterial activity from leaf extract was strong to inhibited Vibrio sp. with inhibition zone 8,75 mm. The crude extract of nipah’s leaf was toxic with toxicity value is 663,598 μg/mL. Flavonoids, steroids, tanin, saponin and phenol hidroquinon were the active compounds contained in the extract of nipah’s leaf

    Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Green Algae Halimeda gracilis from Seribu Island District

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    Seaweeds have ecological functions as primary producers in marine waters. It also has an important economic value as a producer of hydrocolloids (alginate, agar and carrageenan) that is used in various industries of food and pharmaceuticals. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of green algae Halimeda gracilis. The study was conducted in several stages, sample collection and preparation, extraction of bioactive compound, fractionation, antibacterial and antioxidant test, and phytochemical. Extraction was done by maceration method using methanol and concentrated by rotary evaporator. The methanol extracts of H. gracilis were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Methanol extract of H. gracilis formed inhibition zone against the test bacteria with diameter of inhibition zone was 10 mm and 6 mm, respectively. After liquid-liquid partition (water: ethyl acetate), inhibition zone was only seen in the ethyl acetate fraction of H. gracilis with diameter of inhibition zone was 6 mm and 7.50±1.71 mm, respectively. Antioxidant test methanol extracts and ethyl acetate fractions of H. gracilis each show IC50 value of 290.49 ppm and 375.50 ppm. Phytochemical test showed methanol extract of H. gracilis contains phenols and steroids

    Toxicity Sub chronic Water Extract Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus In Vivo on Sprague dawley Rats

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    Meretrix meretrix is one of the shells of sea water are widely utilized by people as food. This clamalso has many properties and benefits, so in this study tested the effect of the water extract of Meretrixmeretrix against blood chemistry profile Sprague Dawley rats with the method (OECD 413: 2009). Based onobservations obtained growth, feed intake, weight of liver and kidney in normal conditions. Levels of urea,creatinine, cholesterol between the control mice treated with A/0.1 and A/1 were not significantly different(p> 0.05) while the levels of bilirubin and albumin between control mice treated with A/0.1 and A/1 resultssignificantly different (p<0.05), but all blood chemistry parameters tested is still in the normal category
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