4,010 research outputs found

    A Pioneer in the Field of Humanitarian Mine Action: Mine Clearance Planning Agency (MCPA)

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    The Mine Clearance Planning Agency (MCPA) aims to effectively contribute to humanitarian mine action and advocacy activities in Afghanistan and other landmine-infested countries in order to make the hometowns of refugees and displaced people land-mine free and to implement essential rehabilitation and development activities in mine-affected communities

    Center for International Rehabilitation

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    On 7 March 2006, the Government of National Unity in Sudan with assistance from the United Nations Development Programme–Sudan officially launched the country’s National Mine Action Authority at Friendship Hall, in Khartoum, Sudan. The new NMAA gathers the other mine-action entities in the country under its umbrella and represents Sudan’s commitment to confronting and eventually eliminating its landmine and explosive remnants of war problem

    Demining Technologies

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    Humanitarian mine clearance is a new phenomenon in the world. Therefore, well-coordinated and concrete steps need to be taken at international levels to address this issue. The Humanitarian mine-clearance technology has evolved at organizational, regional, and national levels in various parts of the world. However, at the international level, very little has been done so far to learn from these individual but practical lessons. The current effort s to develop humanitarian mine-clearance technology is either not coordinated or is poorly coordinated with field-level requirements. Efforts are required to organize the humanitarian mine-clearance technology at the international level and to develop international-level criterion, procedures, and standards that could enhance the effectiveness, cost efficiency, reliability, and safety of humanitarian mine clearance

    Landmine Impact Survey in the Republic of Yemen

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    The Republic of Yemen is located in the Middle East, bordering Saudi Arabia to the north, Oman to the northeast, the Gulf of Aden to the south and the Red Sea to the west with an area of 550,000 square kilometers and a population of approximately 15 million. The country is divided into 19 administrative units, called governorates. Landmines in Yemen were laid as a result of several separate conflicts over a period of about 30 years, starting during the 1962—1975 conflicts between the Republicans and Royalists in the north. In addition, landmines were laid during the 1963—1967 war of independence in the south and during the leftist guerrilla war in the central governorates during 1970—1983. A large number of landmines were also laid in six governorates in southern Yemen during the 1994 war of cessation

    Betting Big on CPEC

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    With the launch of the China- Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), one fundamental question to ask is if this ambitious project will transform Pakistan and boost China’s ambitious Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). In this article, the authors assess the potential and prospect of CPEC in terms of its various opportunities and constraints and examine the economic potentials and social impacts of CPEC from the Pakistani national perspective using a subnational and local lens as well as from the Chinese vantage point and draw the broad implications of this two-sided analysis of CPEC toward a preliminary policy oriented conclusion

    Intramuscular Route of Administration Increases Potency in Eliciting Cocaine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization

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    Background: Cocaine is the number one abused psychostimulant drug that reaches addiction criterion in the US. In animals, repeated administration of cocaine results in behavioral sensitization which is thought to represent adaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine neural circuitry, the reward pathway. Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization is evident in rodents and quail when cocaine is administered intraperitoneally (IP). Objective: The purpose of the current study was to investigate dose-dependent and temporal effects of acute and chronic intramuscular (IM) administration of cocaine in male quail. Method: After habituation to the test chambers, male quail received an IM injection of saline, 3 or 10 mg/kg cocaine and were immediately placed in the chambers. Distance traveled (in meters) was recorded in 5 min time bins for 30 min. Testing was conducted once per day for ten days with each subject receiving the same treatment throughout the experiment. Other behaviors including pecking, preening, and feather fluffing were measured. Results: Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and tolerance were evident at relatively low doses of IM cocaine. Dose-dependent effects were evident. IM cocaine also reduced feather fluffing, a behavior that typically occurs during hypothermia. Conclusion: The findings replicated and extended previous research with pigeons and suggested that IM administration of cocaine may be a relatively potent route of administration. Potency of drugs of abuse may be related to the bioavailability of a drug and its addictive properties. Thus, studying drugs of abuse using an IM route of administration may be useful in drug addiction research

    A case report of Vagus nerve stimulation for intractable hiccups

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    Introduction: Intractable hiccups frequently result from an underlying pathology and can cause considerable illness in the patients. Initial remedies such as drinking cold water, induction of emesis, carotid sinus massage or Valsalva manoeuvre all seem to work by over stimulating the Vagus nerve. Pharmacotherapy with baclofen, gabapentin and other centrally and peripherally acting agents such as chlorpromazine and metoclopramide are reserved as second line treatment. Medical refractory cases even indulge in unconventional therapies such as hypnosis, massages and acupuncture. Surgical intervention, although undertaken very rarely, predominantly revolves around phrenic nerve crushing, blockade or pacing. A novel surgical strategy is emerging in the form of Vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) placement with three cases cited in literature to date with varying degrees of success. Here the authors report a case of VNS placement for intractable hiccups with partial success, in accordance with SCARE-2018 guidelines. Presentation of the case: An 85-year-old gentleman with a 9-year history of intractable hiccups secondary to pneumonia came to our hospital. The hiccups were symptomatic causing anorexia, insomnia, irritability, depression, exhaustion, muscle wasting and weight loss. The patient underwent countless medical evaluations. All examinations and investigations yielded normal results. The patient underwent aggressive pharmacotherapy, home remedies and unconventional therapies for intractable hiccups but to no avail. He also underwent left phrenic nerve blocking and resection without therapeutic success. The patient presented to our hospital and decision for VNS insertion was taken for compassionate reasons considering patient morbidity. The patient demonstrated significant improvement in his symptoms following VNS insertion. Discussion: A temporary hiccup is an occasional happening experienced by everyone. However, intractable hiccups are associated with significant morbidity and often mortality. Several medical, pharmacological, surgical and novel treatment options are available for intractable hiccups. Conclusion: VNS insertion is a novel surgical option for the treatment of intractable hiccups

    Drosophila Heartless Acts with Heartbroken/Dof in Muscle Founder Differentiation

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    The formation of a multi-nucleate myofibre is directed, in Drosophila, by a founder cell. In the embryo, founders are selected by Notch-mediated lateral inhibition, while during adult myogenesis this mechanism of selection does not appear to operate. We show, in the muscles of the adult abdomen, that the Fibroblast growth factor pathway mediates founder cell choice in a novel manner. We suggest that the developmental patterns of Heartbroken/Dof and Sprouty result in defining the domain and timing of activation of the Fibroblast growth factor receptor Heartless in specific myoblasts, thereby converting them into founder cells. Our results point to a way in which muscle differentiation could be initiated and define a critical developmental function for Heartbroken/Dof in myogenesis

    Population structure and diversity of the periphyton community in the glacier-fed stream Balkhila at Siron from Garhwal Himalaya

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    The stream Balkhila is a glacier-fed and originates at higher altitudes from the Lal Mati glacier, flows through the famous Mandal valley of Garhwal Himalaya and finally merges with the Alaknanda River in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand. The present study aimed to assess the population structure, density and diversity of the periphyton community along with some detrimental ecological parameters in the glacier fed stream Balkhila for a period of two years on a monthly basis from November 2018 to October 2020. The stream Balkhila was represented by 17 periphytic genera belonging to 3 classes, namely, Bacillariophyceae, Chlorohyceae and Cyanophyceae. The class Bacillariophyceae was represented by 10 periphytic genera (Cymbella, Navicula, Fragilaria, Nitzschia, Ampohora, Diatoma, Synedra, Tabellaria, Cocconeis and  Meridion), and Chlorophyceae (green algae) was represented by 6 algal genera (Chlorella, Ulothrix, Zygnema, Oedogomium, Spirogyra and Stigeoclonium). The class Myxophyceae was represented by a single genus (Phormidium). The maximum periphytic density (individuals/cm2) was found to be 316.7±7.1 x 103 in January, and the minimum density (12.5±3.5 x 103) was recorded in August. The SIMPLER test indicated 18.58% dissimilarity of periphytic communities between the two years of study. The Shannon–Wiener diversity index values were high (2.358 and 2.388) in December and January and minimum (0.2484 and 0.3534) in July and August during the first and second years of the study, respectively. Multivariate canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) suggested that most of the periphytic genera were closely associated with the winter season (December, January and February). The various ecological parameters of our study indicated that the Balkhila stream is a conducive habitat for periphyton communities

    Adrenalectomy for solitary metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma post liver transplantation: case report and literature review

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    Abstract Liver transplantation (LT) is the treatment of choice for localized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with cirrhosis. Extra hepatic metastasis is the most common cause of death in these patients. There is very little evidence regarding the natural history and treatment options for patients developing HCC recurrence after LT. Surgical resection offers a unique opportunity for solitary metastasis. We report a 61 year old male with solitary right adrenal metastasis 15 months post LT which was managed with open adrenalectomy. The patient is alive and disease free 24 months after the surgery. The case, histo-pathological findings and literature review is discussed
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