29 research outputs found

    Hebo: New Year Ritual of Yem People in South West Ethiopia

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    Hebo, which is the New Year ritual of Yem, plays a crucial role in resolving conflicts and/or crimes of any kind among the community. The ritual incorporates multistage peacemaking processes. This study describes Hebo ritual performances and reveals peacemaking mechanisms through its stages.  To collect data, participant observation, in-depth interview and document analysis were employed in ethnographic fieldwork. Data were described and interpreted based on the sequences of ritual performances. The findings of the study show that the New Year ritual has multi stage peace maintaining mechanisms that strengthens social cohesion, redirects identity and restores solidarity among the clans. Hence, considering the traditional system of uncovering hidden crimes and peacemaking mechanisms plays significant roles to reinforce peace, social stability and development in the study area in particular and in the country in general

    Breeding Wheat for Powdery Mildew Resistance: Genetic Resources and Methodologies-A Review

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    Powdery mildew (PM) of wheat caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is among the most important wheat diseases, causing significant yield and quality losses in many countries worldwide. Considerable progress has been made in resistance breeding to mitigate powdery mildew. Genetic host resistance employs either race-specific (qualitative) resistance, race-non-specific (quantitative), or a combination of both. Over recent decades, efforts to identify host resistance traits to powdery mildew have led to the discovery of over 240 genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) across all 21 wheat chromosomes. Sources of PM resistance in wheat include landraces, synthetic, cultivated, and wild species. The resistance identified in various genetic resources is transferred to the elite genetic background of a well-adapted cultivar with minimum linkage drag using advanced breeding and selection approaches. In this effort, wheat landraces have emerged as an important source of allelic and genetic diversity, which is highly valuable for developing new PM-resistant cultivars. However, most landraces have not been characterized for PM resistance, limiting their use in breeding programs. PM resistance is a polygenic trait; therefore, the degree of such resistance is mostly influenced by environmental conditions. Another challenge in breeding for PM resistance has been the lack of consistent disease pressure in multi-environment trials, which compromises phenotypic selection efficiency. It is therefore imperative to complement conventional breeding technologies with molecular breeding to improve selection efficiency. High-throughput genotyping techniques, based on chip array or sequencing, have increased the capacity to identify the genetic basis of PM resistance. However, developing PM-resistant cultivars is still challenging, and there is a need to harness the potential of new approaches to accelerate breeding progress. The main objective of this review is to describe the status of breeding for powdery mildew resistance, as well as the latest discoveries that offer novel ways to achieve durable PM resistance. Major topics discussed in the review include the genetic basis of PM resistance in wheat, available genetic resources for race-specific and adult-plant resistance to PM, important gene banks, and conventional and complimentary molecular breeding approaches, with an emphasis on marker-assisted selection (MAS)

    The magnitude of pediatric mortality and determinant factors in intensive care units in a low-resource country, Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    BackgroundPediatric mortality after being admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit in Ethiopia is high when compared to high-income countries. There are limited studies regarding pediatric mortality in Ethiopia. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the magnitude and predictors of pediatric mortality after being admitted to an intensive care unit in Ethiopia.MethodsThis review was conducted in Ethiopia after retrieving peer-reviewed articles and evaluating their quality using AMSTAR 2 criteria. An electronic database was used as a source of information, including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Africa Journal of Online Databases, using AND/OR Boolean operators. Random effects of the meta-analysis were used to show the pooled mortality of pediatric patients and its predictors. A funnel plot was used to assess the publication bias, and heterogeneity was also checked. The final result were expressed as an overall pooled percentage and odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of < 0.05%.ResultsIn our review, eight studies were used for the final analysis with a total population of 2,345. The overall pooled mortality of pediatric patients after being admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit was 28.5% (95% CI: 19.06, 37.98). The pooled mortality determinant factors were included the use of a mechanical ventilator with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.64 (95% CI: 1.99, 3.30); the level of Glasgow Coma Scale <8 with an OR of 2.29 (95% CI: 1.38, 3.19); the presence of comorbidity with an OR of 2.18 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.95); and the use of inotropes with an OR of 2.36 (95% CI: 1.65, 3.06).ConclusionIn our review, the overall pooled mortality of pediatric patients after being admitted to the intensive care unit was high. Particular caution should be taken in patients on the use of mechanical ventilators, the level of Glasgow Coma Scale of <8, the presence of comorbidity, and the use of inotropes.Systematic review registrationhttps://www.researchregistry.com/browse-the-registry#registryofsystematicreviewsmeta-analyses/, identifier: 1460

    Metabolomic evaluation of PGPR defence priming in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars infected with Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (stripe rust)

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    Plant-microbe interactions are a phenomenal display of symbiotic/parasitic relationships between living organisms. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are some of the most widely investigated plant-beneficial microbes due to their capabilities in stimulating plant growth and development and conferring protection to plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. As such, PGPR-mediated plant priming/induced systemic resistance (ISR) has become a hot topic among researchers, particularly with prospects of applications in sustainable agriculture. The current study applies untargeted ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high-definition mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HDMS) to investigate PGPR-based metabolic reconfigurations in the metabolome of primed wheat plants against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tricti (Pst). A seed bio-priming approach was adopted, where seeds were coated with two PGPR strains namely Bacillus subtilis and Paenibacillus alvei (T22) and grown under controlled conditions in a glasshouse. The plants were infected with Pst one-week post-germination, followed by weekly harvesting of leaf material. Subsequent metabolite extraction was carried out for analysis on a UHPLC-HDMS system for data acquisition. The data was chemometrically processed to reveal the underlying trends and data structures as well as potential signatory biomarkers for priming against Pst. Results showed notable metabolic reprogramming in primary and secondary metabolism, where the amino acid and organic acid content of primed-control, primed-challenged and non-primed-challenged plants were differentially reprogrammed. Similar trends were observed from the secondary metabolism, in which primed plants (particularly primed-challenged) showed an up-regulation of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids-HCAs- and HCA amides) compared to the non-primed plants. The metabolomics-based semi-quantitative and qualitative assessment of the plant metabolomes revealed a time-dependent metabolic reprogramming in primed-challenged and primed-unchallenged plants, indicating the metabolic adaptations of the plants to stripe rust infection over time

    Adult plant resistance to leaf rust and stem rust of wheat in a newly developed recombinant inbred line population

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    <p>Leaf rust caused by <i>Puccinia triticina</i> and stem rust by <i>P. graminis</i> f. sp. <i>tritici</i> are the most destructive diseases of wheat (<i>Triticum aestivum</i> L.), resulting in substantial yield losses globally. A continuous search for new sources of effective rust resistance genes is necessary to develop improved cultivars with durable resistance. This study aimed to investigate inheritance of adult-plant resistance in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of a cross between wheat cultivars ‚ÄėPopo‚Äô and ‚ÄėKariega‚Äô, and to identify breeding lines possessing both leaf rust and stem rust resistance. A panel of 179 RILs, two parental cultivars and three checks were evaluated in South Africa at two localities, Cedara and Tygerhoek, in 2014 and 2015. Disease response ranged from highly resistant to highly susceptible. Analysis of variance indicated highly significant (<i>p</i>‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001) differences among the RILs for both diseases across the testing environments. Broad-sense heritability estimates were 0.53 and 0.77 for leaf rust and stem rust, respectively. Twenty-six RILs were selected showing significantly higher levels of resistance to both pathogens. The moderate to high heritability estimates for leaf rust and stem rust resistance favours the use of the newly developed RILs for resistance breeding against the two diseases.</p

    Breeding Wheat for Powdery Mildew Resistance: Genetic Resources and Methodologies‚ÄĒA Review

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    Powdery mildew (PM) of wheat caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is among the most important wheat diseases, causing significant yield and quality losses in many countries worldwide. Considerable progress has been made in resistance breeding to mitigate powdery mildew. Genetic host resistance employs either race-specific (qualitative) resistance, race-non-specific (quantitative), or a combination of both. Over recent decades, efforts to identify host resistance traits to powdery mildew have led to the discovery of over 240 genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) across all 21 wheat chromosomes. Sources of PM resistance in wheat include landraces, synthetic, cultivated, and wild species. The resistance identified in various genetic resources is transferred to the elite genetic background of a well-adapted cultivar with minimum linkage drag using advanced breeding and selection approaches. In this effort, wheat landraces have emerged as an important source of allelic and genetic diversity, which is highly valuable for developing new PM-resistant cultivars. However, most landraces have not been characterized for PM resistance, limiting their use in breeding programs. PM resistance is a polygenic trait; therefore, the degree of such resistance is mostly influenced by environmental conditions. Another challenge in breeding for PM resistance has been the lack of consistent disease pressure in multi-environment trials, which compromises phenotypic selection efficiency. It is therefore imperative to complement conventional breeding technologies with molecular breeding to improve selection efficiency. High-throughput genotyping techniques, based on chip array or sequencing, have increased the capacity to identify the genetic basis of PM resistance. However, developing PM-resistant cultivars is still challenging, and there is a need to harness the potential of new approaches to accelerate breeding progress. The main objective of this review is to describe the status of breeding for powdery mildew resistance, as well as the latest discoveries that offer novel ways to achieve durable PM resistance. Major topics discussed in the review include the genetic basis of PM resistance in wheat, available genetic resources for race-specific and adult-plant resistance to PM, important gene banks, and conventional and complimentary molecular breeding approaches, with an emphasis on marker-assisted selection (MAS)

    Perioperative mortality among trauma patients in Northwest Ethiopia: a prospective cohort study

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    Abstract Trauma is the leading cause of mortality in persons under 45 and a significant public health issue. Trauma is the most frequent cause of perioperative mortality among all surgical patients. Little is known about perioperative outcomes among trauma patients in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess the incidence and identify predictors of perioperative mortality among adult trauma victims at Tibebe Ghion Specialised Hospital. From June 1, 2019, to June 30, 2021, a prospective cohort study was conducted at Tibebe Ghion Specialized Hospital. Demographic, pre-hospital and perioperative clinical data were collected using an electronic data collection tool, Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap). Cox proportional hazard model regression was used to assess the association between predictors and perioperative mortality among trauma victims. Crude and adjusted hazard ratio (HR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed; a p-value‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.05 was a cutoff value to declare statistical significance. One thousand sixty-nine trauma patients were enrolled in this study. The overall incidence of perioperative mortality among trauma patients was 5.89%, with an incidence rate of 2.23 (95% CI 1.74 to 2.86) deaths per 1000 person-day observation. Age‚ÄČ‚Č•‚ÄČ65¬†years (AHR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2.51, 95% CI: 1.04, 6.08), patients sustained blunt trauma (AHR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ3.28, 95% CI: 1.30, 8.29) and MVA (AHR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2.96, 95% CI: 1.18, 7.43), trauma occurred at night time (AHR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2.29, 95% CI: 1.15, 4.56), ASA physical status‚ÄČ‚Č•‚ÄČIII (AHR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ3.84, 95% CI: 1.88, 7.82), and blood transfusion (AHR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2.01, 95% CI: 1.08, 3.74) were identified as a significant predictor for perioperative mortality among trauma patients. In this trauma cohort, it was demonstrated that perioperative mortality is a healthcare burden. Risk factors for perioperative mortality among trauma patients were old age, patients sustaining blunt trauma and motor vehicle accidents, injuries at night, higher ASA physical status, and blood transfusion. Trauma care services need improvement in pre-hospital and perioperative care

    DataSheet_1_Metabolomic evaluation of PGPR defence priming in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars infected with Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (stripe rust).docx

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    Plant-microbe interactions are a phenomenal display of symbiotic/parasitic relationships between living organisms. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are some of the most widely investigated plant-beneficial microbes due to their capabilities in stimulating plant growth and development and conferring protection to plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. As such, PGPR-mediated plant priming/induced systemic resistance (ISR) has become a hot topic among researchers, particularly with prospects of applications in sustainable agriculture. The current study applies untargeted ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high-definition mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HDMS) to investigate PGPR-based metabolic reconfigurations in the metabolome of primed wheat plants against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tricti (Pst). A seed bio-priming approach was adopted, where seeds were coated with two PGPR strains namely Bacillus subtilis and Paenibacillus alvei (T22) and grown under controlled conditions in a glasshouse. The plants were infected with Pst one-week post-germination, followed by weekly harvesting of leaf material. Subsequent metabolite extraction was carried out for analysis on a UHPLC-HDMS system for data acquisition. The data was chemometrically processed to reveal the underlying trends and data structures as well as potential signatory biomarkers for priming against Pst. Results showed notable metabolic reprogramming in primary and secondary metabolism, where the amino acid and organic acid content of primed-control, primed-challenged and non-primed-challenged plants were differentially reprogrammed. Similar trends were observed from the secondary metabolism, in which primed plants (particularly primed-challenged) showed an up-regulation of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids-HCAs- and HCA amides) compared to the non-primed plants. The metabolomics-based semi-quantitative and qualitative assessment of the plant metabolomes revealed a time-dependent metabolic reprogramming in primed-challenged and primed-unchallenged plants, indicating the metabolic adaptations of the plants to stripe rust infection over time.</p

    Clinical competency and associated factors among undergraduate nursing students studying in universities of Southern regional state of Ethiopia, 2021

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    Background: Clinical practice is the means by which nursing students learn to apply the theory, facilitating integration of theoretical knowledge and practical skill in the clinical setting which becomes arts and science of profession. This correlation of theory and practice, and the building of meaningful experience, take place during clinical practice in the health care service. Even though, nursing students need to have clinical competency during practical setting, there were little available evidences regarding to their competency status in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess magnitude of clinical competency and its predictors among undergraduate nursing students studying in universities of Southern regional state of Ethiopia in 2021 G C. Methods: Multi-centered institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted among 414 undergraduate nursing students studying in eight universities of Southern regional state of Ethiopia in 2021 academic year. Systematic random sampling technique after proportional allocation to each selected university was used to select the study participants. Data were collected using pretested structured questionnaire by face to face interview after written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Data were cleaned, coded and entered into Epidata version 3.01 and analyzed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) software version 26. Descriptive statistic for all variables and bi-variable and multi-variables logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with clinical competency was computed and expressed in odds ratio. The result was presented in the form of text, tables and figures and those variables with P-value of <0.05 in multivariable analysis were declared as statistically significant. Result: From 423 total calculated sample sizes, 414 of them were participated in this study giving a response rate of 97.8%. From those participants, 248 (59.9%) of them has clinical competency [95% CI: (55.18%, 64.62%)]. In multivariable analysis, studying in post basic program [AOR: 5.58], conducive clinical learning environment [AOR: 4.10], good staff-student interaction [AOR: 7.44], satisfaction [AOR: 20.66] and positive attitude towards clinical practice [AOR: 2.49] were factors significantly associated with clinical competency. Conclusion: In this study, the overall magnitude of clinical competency was found to be unsatisfactory (59.9%). Studying in private program, non-conducive clinical learning environment, poor staff-student interaction, low satisfaction and negative attitude towards clinical practice were identified as factors associated with clinical incompetency. Policy makers, universities and teaching health facilities need to work collaboratively to create nurses with clinical competency by focusing on proper screening to select candidates for studying in private program, creating conducive clinical learning environment, integrating students with clinical staffs to facilitate learning and positive attitude change of students towards their profession to increase level of satisfaction
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