39 research outputs found

    Variability of the Human Serum Metabolome over 3 Months in the EXPOsOMICS Personal Exposure Monitoring Study

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    Liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) and untargeted metabolomics are increasingly used in exposome studies to study the interactions between nongenetic factors and the blood metabolome. To reliably and efficiently link detected compounds to exposures and health phenotypes in such studies, it is important to understand the variability in metabolome measures. We assessed the within- and between-subject variability of untargeted LC-HRMS measurements in 298 nonfasting human serum samples collected on two occasions from 157 subjects. Samples were collected ca. 107 (IQR: 34) days apart as part of the multicenter EXPOsOMICS Personal Exposure Monitoring study. In total, 4294 metabolic features were detected, and 184 unique compounds could be identified with high confidence. The median intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) across all metabolic features was 0.51 (IQR: 0.29) and 0.64 (IQR: 0.25) for the 184 uniquely identified compounds. For this group, the median ICC marginally changed (0.63) when we included common confounders (age, sex, and body mass index) in the regression model. When grouping compounds by compound class, the ICC was largest among glycerophospholipids (median ICC 0.70) and steroids (0.67), and lowest for amino acids (0.61) and the O-acylcarnitine class (0.44). ICCs varied substantially within chemical classes. Our results suggest that the metabolome as measured with untargeted LC-HRMS is fairly stable (ICC > 0.5) over 100 days for more than half of the features monitored in our study, to reflect average levels across this time period. Variance across the metabolome will result in differential measurement error across the metabolome, which needs to be considered in the interpretation of metabolome results

    Phlebotomine sand fly survey in the focus of leishmaniasis in Madrid, Spain (2012-2014): seasonal dynamics, Leishmania infantum infection rates and blood meal preferences

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    BACKGROUND: An unusual increase of human leishmaniasis cases due to Leishmania infantum is occurring in an urban area of southwestern Madrid, Spain, since 2010. Entomological surveys have shown that Phlebotomus perniciosus is the only potential vector. Direct xenodiagnosis in hares (Lepus granatensis) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) collected in the focus area proved that they can transmit parasites to colonized P. perniciosus. Isolates were characterized as L. infantum. The aim of the present work was to conduct a comprehensive study of sand flies in the outbreak area, with special emphasis on P. perniciosus. METHODS: Entomological surveys were done from June to October 2012-2014 in 4 stations located close to the affected area. Twenty sticky traps (ST) and two CDC light traps (LT) were monthly placed during two consecutive days in every station. LT were replaced every morning. Sand fly infection rates were determined by dissecting females collected with LT. Molecular procedures applied to study blood meal preferences and to detect L. infantum were performed for a better understanding of the epidemiology of the outbreak. RESULTS: A total of 45,127 specimens belonging to 4 sand fly species were collected: P. perniciosus (75.34%), Sergentomyia minuta (24.65%), Phlebotomus sergenti (0.005%) and Phlebotomus papatasi (0.005%). No Phlebotomus ariasi were captured. From 3203 P. perniciosus female dissected, 117 were infected with flagellates (3.7%). Furthermore, 13.31% and 7.78% of blood-fed and unfed female sand flies, respectively, were found infected with L. infantum by PCR. The highest rates of infected P. perniciosus were detected at the end of the transmission periods. Regarding to blood meal preferences, hares and rabbits were preferred, although human, cat and dog blood were also found. CONCLUSIONS: This entomological study highlights the exceptional nature of the Leishmania outbreak occurring in southwestern Madrid, Spain. It is confirmed that P. perniciosus is the only vector in the affected area, with high densities and infection rates. Rabbits and hares were the main blood meal sources of this species. These results reinforce the need for an extensive and permanent surveillance in this region, and others of similar characteristics, in order to control the vector and regulate the populations of wild reservoirs.This study was partially sponsored and funded by: Direcci√≥n General de Salud P√ļblica, Consejer√≠a de Sanidad, Comunidad de Madrid; Colegio de Veterinarios de Madrid; Colegio de Bi√≥logos de Madrid and EU grant FP7-261504 EDENext (http://www.edenext.eu).S