3 research outputs found

    Supplementary Material for: Involvement of Heat Shock Proteins in <b><i>Candida albicans</i></b> Biofilm Formation

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    Biofilm growth represents one of the most challenging problems associated with <i>Candida</i> infections, largely due to the natural resistance of biofilm to the common antifungal drugs. As elevated expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) promotes <i>Candida</i> yeast-hyphae switch, which is an essential step in biofilm formation, we investigated the expression of <i>hsp</i> genes during <i>Candida albicans</i> biofilm development. By measuring mRNA levels using qRT-PCR, we found that all three <i>hsp</i> genes that we monitored are overexpressed in the initial stage of <i>C. albicans</i> biofilm formation. To corroborate this finding, we examined the effect of 17-DMAG, a specific Hsp90 inhibitor, on the formation of <i>C. albicans</i> biofilm. Our results indicate the requirement of HSP during the early phase of <i>Candida</i> biofilm development

    Erratum: Induced Endothelial Cells Enhance Osteogenesis and Vascularization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Adequate vascularization remains one of the major challenges in bone tissue engineering. Since the microvascular endothelium is of benefit to osteogenesis and vascularization when in direct contact with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), we investigated whether endothelial cells induced from BM-MSCs have the same effect on BM-MSCs in vitro and in vivo. BM-MSCs were isolated, characterized and induced into endothelial-like cells (induced endothelial cells, IECs) in endothelial cell growth medium 2. BM-MSCs and IECs were co-cultured with direct contact. In vitro, IECs were evaluated in terms of their characteristics of endothelial cells and their effects on the osteogenic potential of BM-MSCs by cell morphology, immunofluorescent staining, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin synthesis. In vivo, scaffolds consisting of β-tricalcium phosphate co-seeded with IECs and BM-MSCs were transplanted into mouse dorsal pockets, and a histological analysis was performed to determine the extent of new bone and blood vessel formation. Isolated BM-MSCs were positive for the markers CD105 and CD29 and negative for hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45 and CD14. They were able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes in respective media. Immunofluorescent analysis with von Willebrand factor and CD31 staining showed that BM-MSCs could differentiate into endothelial cells. The alkaline phosphatase activity and the osteocalcin content of the co-culture group were obviously higher than those of any other group (p < 0.05). Histologically, newly formed bone and vessels were more evident in the culture group (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that IECs could efficiently stimulate the in vitro differentiation of osteoblast-like cells and promote osteogenesis in vivo by direct contact with BM-MSCs

    Erratum: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Predicts Clinical Response to Cyclosporine Treatment in Primary Membranous Nephropathy

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    <b><i>Background:</i></b> Little is known about the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) marker glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and calcineurin in the kidney in primary membranous nephropathy (PMN) and if they could predict post-cyclosporine treatment outcome. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> This is a retrospective study using a dataset of biopsy-confirmed PMN from Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 1996 to 2014. Seventy-six adult patients treated with cyclosporine as primary immunosuppression for at least 6 months were studied. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect GRP78 and calcineurin in the kidney. Serum calcineurin was assayed by ELISA. Patients were grouped into no-remission (NR, n = 17), partial remission (PR, n = 39), or complete remission (CR, n = 20) at the end of 6 months of treatment. <b><i>Results:</i></b> There was no difference of initial dose of cyclosporine among NR, PR, and CR groups. Kidney calcineurin expression in PMN was significantly increased compared to that in controls (p < 0.0083). The glomerular GRP78 in NR PMN was higher than that in control, CR and PR patients (p < 0.0083). Kidney calcineurin expression and GRP78 expression was positively correlated. However, there were no differences in either serum calcineurin levels or kidney calcineurin expressions among NR, PR or CR groups. There was a negative correlation between serum calcineurin activity and whole kidney calcineurin expression (p = 0.034) or glomerular calcineurin expression (p = 0.007). Neither kidney calcineurin nor GRP78 expression was correlated with proteinuria. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> ERS marker GRP78 in the glomeruli but not serum or kidney calcineurin expression could be a useful marker in PMN to negatively predict the response to cyclosporine treatment at the sixth month