1,035 research outputs found

    Statin use and non-melanoma skin cancer risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies

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    Background Existing evidence of the association between statin use and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) risk has been inconsistent. Objective To maximize statistical power to synthesize prospective evidence on this relationship. Materials and Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrial.gov were systematically searched up to December 11, 2016. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to calculate summary estimates. Results Our meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including 63,157 subjects showed no significant association between statin use and NMSC risk (RR = 1.09, 95%CI = 0.85–1.39). However, meta-analysis of four observational studies including 1,528,215 participants showed significantly increased risk of NMSC among statin users compared to non-users (RR = 1.11, 95%CI = 1.02–1.22). Furthermore, ever using lipophilic statins (RR = 1.14, 95%CI = 1.04–1.24) or lower-potency statins (RR = 1.14, 95%CI = 1.03–1.26), as well as usage of any statin longer than one year (RR = 1.14, 95%CI = 1.09–1.18) were significantly associated with increased NMSC risk based on observational studies. Conclusions Evidence from observational studies supported an association between statin use and increased NMSC risk. This finding should be interpreted with caution due to modest number of included studies, possible between-study heterogeneity and inherent limitations of observational studies

    Detection of non-melanoma skin cancer by in vivo fluorescence imaging with fluorocoxib A.

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    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer in the US and its incidence is increasing. The current standard of care is visual inspection by physicians and/or dermatologists, followed by skin biopsy and pathologic confirmation. We have investigated the use of in vivo fluorescence imaging using fluorocoxib A as a molecular probe for early detection and assessment of skin tumors in mouse models of NMSC. Fluorocoxib A targets the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme that is preferentially expressed by inflamed and tumor tissue, and therefore has potential to be an effective broadly active molecular biomarker for cancer detection. We tested the sensitivity of fluorocoxib A in a BCC allograft SCID hairless mouse model using a wide-field fluorescence imaging system. Subcutaneous allografts comprised of 1000 BCC cells were detectable above background. These BCC allograft mice were imaged over time and a linear correlation (R(2) = 0.8) between tumor volume and fluorocoxib A signal levels was observed. We also tested fluorocoxib A in a genetically engineered spontaneous BCC mouse model (Ptch1(+/-) K14-Cre-ER2 p53(fl/fl)), where sequential imaging of the same animals over time demonstrated that early, microscopic lesions (100 μm size) developed into visible macroscopic tumor masses over 11 to 17 days. Overall, for macroscopic tumors, the sensitivity was 88% and the specificity was 100%. For microscopic tumors, the sensitivity was 85% and specificity was 56%. These results demonstrate the potential of fluorocoxib A as an in vivo imaging agent for early detection, margin delineation and guided biopsies of NMSCs

    Intra-articular injection of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor parecoxib attenuates osteoarthritis progression in anterior cruciate ligament-transected knee in rats: role of excitatory amino acids

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    SummaryObjectiveOur present study examined the effect of intra-articular cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor parecoxib on osteoarthritis (OA) progression and the concomitant changes in excitatory amino acids' (EAAs) levels of the anterior cruciate ligament-transected (ACLT) knee joint dialysates.MethodsOA was induced in Wistar rats by anterior cruciate ligament transection of the knee of one hindlimb, the other was left unoperated and untreated. Rats were placed into four groups: Group ACLT/P received intra-articular parecoxib injection (100μg) in the ACLT knee once a week for 5 consecutive weeks starting at 8 weeks after surgery. Group ACLT/S received the same procedure as group ACLT/P with saline injection instead. Naïve (Naïve/P) rats received only intra-articular parecoxib injection in one knee once a week for 5 consecutive weeks without surgery. The sham-operated rats underwent arthrotomy only without treatment. Twenty weeks after surgery, knee joint dialysates were collected and EAAs' concentration was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and gross morphology and histopathology (Mankin and synovitis grading) were examined on the medial femoral condyles and synovia.ResultsParecoxib alone had no effect on cartilage and synovium of normal knees in Naïve/P rats. In ACLT/P rats, parecoxib treatment showed a significant inhibition of cartilage degeneration of the medial femoral condyle at both the macroscopic level (1.15±0.17 vs 2.55±0.12, P<0.05) and the Mankin scores (3.03±0.28 vs 8.82±0.43, P<0.05). Intra-articular parecoxib injection also suppressed the synovial inflammation of ACLT joint compared to the ACLT/S group (3.92±0.41 vs 9.25±0.32, P<0.05). Moreover, glutamate and aspartate levels were also significantly reduced in the ACLT/P group compared to the ACLT/S group by parecoxib treatment (91.2±9.4% vs 189.5±17.0%, P<0.05 and 98.2±11.6% vs 175.3±12.4%, P<0.05, respectively).ConclusionThis study shows that intra-articular injection of COX-2 inhibitor parecoxib inhibits the ACLT-induced OA progression; it was accompanied by a reduction of glutamate and aspartate concentration in the ACLT joint dialysates. From our present results, we suggested that intra-articular parecoxib injection, in addition to the anti-inflammatory effect, inhibiting the EAAs' release, may also play a role in inhibiting the traumatic knee injury induced OA progression

    Association study of genetic variation in DNA repair pathway genes and risk of basal cell carcinoma

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    DNA repair plays a critical role in protecting the genome from ultraviolet radiation and maintaining the genomic integrity of cells. Genetic variants in DNA repair-related genes can influence an individual's DNA repair capacity, which may be related to the risk of developing basal cell carcinoma (BCC). We comprehensively assessed the associations of 2,965 independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 165 DNA repair pathway genes with BCC risk in a genome-wide association meta-analysis totaling 17,187 BCC cases and 287,054 controls from two data sets. After multiple testing corrections, we identified three SNPs (rs2805831 upstream of XPA: OR = 0.93, P = 1.35 × 10-6 ; rs659857 in exon of MUS81: OR = 1.06, P = 3.09 × 10-6 and rs57343616 in 3' UTR of NABP2: OR = 1.11, P = 6.47 × 10-6 ) as significantly associated with BCC risk in meta-analysis, and all of them were nominally significant in both data sets. Furthermore, rs659857 [T] was significantly associated with decreased expression of MUS81 mRNA in the expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis. Our findings suggest that the inherited common variation in three DNA repair genes-XPA, MUS81 and NABP2-may be involved in the development of BCC. To our knowledge, our study is the first report thoroughly examining the effects of SNPs across DNA repair pathway genes on BCC risk based on a genome-wide association meta-analysis

    Relation of statin use with non-melanoma skin cancer: prospective results from the Women\u27s Health Initiative.

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    BACKGROUND: The relationship between statin use and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is unclear with conflicting findings in literature. Data from the Women\u27s Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study and WHI Clinical Trial were used to investigate the prospective relationship between statin use and NMSC in non-Hispanic white (NHW) postmenopausal women. METHODS: The WHI study enrolled women aged 50-79 years at 40 US centres. Among 133 541 NHW participants, 118 357 with no cancer history at baseline and complete medication/covariate data comprised the analytic cohort. The association of statin use (baseline, overall as a time-varying variable, duration, type, potency, lipophilicity) and NMSC incidence was determined using random-effects logistic regression models. RESULTS: Over a mean of 10.5 years of follow-up, we identified 11 555 NMSC cases. Compared with participants with no statin use, use of any statin at baseline was associated with significantly increased NMSC incidence (adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.35)). In particular, lovastatin (OR 1.52; 95% CI: 1.08-2.16), simvastatin (OR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.12-1.69), and lipophilic statins (OR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.18-1.64) were associated with higher NMSC risk. Low and high, but not medium, potency statins were associated with higher NMSC risk. No significant effect modification of the statin-NMSC relationship was found for age, BMI, smoking, solar irradiation, vitamin D use, and skin cancer history. CONCLUSIONS: Use of statins, particularly lipophilic statins, was associated with increased NMSC risk in postmenopausal white women in the WHI cohort. The lack of duration-effect relationship points to possible residual confounding. Additional prospective research should further investigate this relationship.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 7 January 2016; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.376 www.bjcancer.com

    Non-invasive MR imaging of inflammation in a patient with both asymptomatic carotid atheroma and an abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report.

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    Inflammation is a recognized risk factor for the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. USPIO-enhanced MRI imaging is a promising non-invasive method to identify high-risk atheromatous plaque inflammation in vivo in humans, in which areas of focal signal loss on MR images have been shown to correspond to the location of activated macrophages, typically at the shoulder regions of the plaque. This is the first report in humans describing simultaneous USPIO uptake within atheroma in two different arterial territories and again emphasises that atherosclerosis is a truly systemic disease. With further work, USPIO-enhanced MR imaging may be useful in identifying inflamed vulnerable atheromatous plaques in vivo, so refining patient selection for intervention and allowing appropriate early aggressive pharmacotherapy to prevent plaque rupture.RIGHTS : This article is licensed under the BioMed Central licence at http://www.biomedcentral.com/about/license which is similar to the 'Creative Commons Attribution Licence'. In brief you may : copy, distribute, and display the work; make derivative works; or make commercial use of the work - under the following conditions: the original author must be given credit; for any reuse or distribution, it must be made clear to others what the license terms of this work are