378 research outputs found

    Regional gray matter correlates of vocational interests.

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    BackgroundPrevious studies have identified brain areas related to cognitive abilities and personality, respectively. In this exploratory study, we extend the application of modern neuroimaging techniques to another area of individual differences, vocational interests, and relate the results to an earlier study of cognitive abilities salient for vocations.FindingsFirst, we examined the psychometric relationships between vocational interests and abilities in a large sample. The primary relationships between those domains were between Investigative (scientific) interests and general intelligence and between Realistic ("blue-collar") interests and spatial ability. Then, using MRI and voxel-based morphometry, we investigated the relationships between regional gray matter volume and vocational interests. Specific clusters of gray matter were found to be correlated with Investigative and Realistic interests. Overlap analyses indicated some common brain areas between the correlates of Investigative interests and general intelligence and between the correlates of Realistic interests and spatial ability.ConclusionsTwo of six vocational-interest scales show substantial relationships with regional gray matter volume. The overlap between the brain correlates of these scales and cognitive-ability factors suggest there are relationships between individual differences in brain structure and vocations

    Discovering Protein Sequence-Structure Motifs and Two Applications to Structural Prediction

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    This thesis investigates the correlations between short protein peptide sequences and local tertiary structures. In particular, it introduces a novel algorithm for partitioning short protein segments into clusters of local sequence-structure motifs, and demonstrates that these motif clusters contain useful structural information via two applications to structural prediction. The first application utilizes motif clusters to predict local protein tertiary structures. A novel dynamic programming algorithm that performs comparably with some of the best existing algorithms is described. The second application exploits the capability of motif clusters in recognizing regular secondary structures to improve the performance of secondary structure prediction based on Support Vector Machines. Empirical results show significant improvement in overall prediction accuracy with no performance degradation in any specific aspect being measured. The encouraging results obtained illustrate the great potential of using local sequence-structure motifs to tackle protein structure predictions and possibly other important problems in computational biology

    Reply Asymptomatic Cardiovascular Risk Assessment: The Road Less Traveled

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    Neuroanatomy of the Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) From Magnetic Resonance Images

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    This article presents the first series of MRI-based anatomically labeled sectioned images of the brain of the killer whale (Orcinus orca). Magnetic resonance images of the brain of an adult killer whale were acquired in the coronal and axial planes. The gross morphology of the killer whale brain is comparable in some respects to that of other odontocete brains, including the unusual spatial arrangement of midbrain structures. There are also intriguing differences. Cerebral hemispheres appear extremely convoluted and, in contrast to smaller cetacean species, the killer whale brain possesses an exceptional degree of cortical elaboration in the insular cortex, temporal operculum, and the cortical limbic lobe. The functional and evolutionary implications of these features are discussed

    Effects of manganese exposure on olfactory functions in teenagers: A pilot study

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    Long-term exposure to environmental manganese (Mn) affects not only attention and neuromotor functions but also olfactory functions of a pre-adolescent local population who have spent their whole life span in contaminated areas. In order to investigate the effect of such exposure at the level of the central nervous system we set up a pilot fMRI experiment pointing at differences of brain activities between a non-exposed population (nine subjects) and an exposed one (three subjects). We also measured the volume of the olfactory bulb as well as the identification of standard olfactory stimuli. Our results suggest that young subjects exposed to Mn exhibit a reduction of BOLD signal, subjective odor sensitivity and olfactory bulb volume. Moreover a region of interest SPM analysis showed a specifically reduced response of the limbic system in relation to Mn exposure, suggesting an alteration of the brain network dealing with emotional responses

    The Soft Gluon Emission Process in the Color-Octet Model for Heavy Quarkonium Production

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    The Color-Octet Model has been used successfully to analyze many problems in heavy quarkonium production. We examine some of the conceptual and practical problems of the soft gluon emission process in the Color-Octet Model. We use a potential model to describe the initial and final states in the soft gluon emission process, as the emission occurs at a late stage after the production of the heavy quark pair. It is found in this model that the soft gluon M1 transition, 1S0(8)->3S1(1), dominates over the E1 transition, 3PJ(8)->3S1(1), for J/psi and psi' production. Such a dominance may help resolve the questions of isotropic polarization and color-octet matrix element universality in the Color-Octet Model.Comment: 26 pages, in LaTe

    Risk factors of pancreatic cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Hong Kong Diabetes Study

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    Context Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with the development of pancreatic cancer (PaC), but few large-scale studies have examined its predictive risk factors. Objective The present study aims to examine the predictors for PaC in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a territory-wide, retrospective cohort study. Methods This was a territory-wide, retrospective cohort study of patients with T2DM mellitus older than 40 years with no prior history of PaC. Baseline demographics, use of antidiabetic medications, comorbidities, and biochemical parameters were extracted. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% CI. Subgroup analyses based on chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages were performed. Results This study consisted of 273 738 patients (age = 65.4 ± 12.7 years, male = 48.2%, follow-up duration = 3547 ± 1207 days, disease duration = 4.8 ± 2.3 years), of whom 1148 developed PaC. The number of antidiabetic medications prescribed (HR: 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.42; P = .040), diabetic microvascular complications (HR: 1.91; 95% CI, 1.30-2.81; P < .001), chronic kidney disease (HR: 1.81; 95% CI, 1.25-2.64; P = .002), use of acarbose (HR: 2.24; 95% CI, 1.35-3.74; P = .002), and use of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (HR: 4.00; 95% CI: 1.28-12.53, P = .017) were associated with PaC development on multivariable Cox regression adjusting for the duration of DM, mean glycated hemoglobin A1c, and history of pancreatic diseases. Stage 3A CKD or below was associated with PaC but not stage 3B or beyond. Conclusion Diabetic microvascular complications, especially stage 1, 2, and 3A CKD, were associated with PaCs

    Neuro-environmental interactions: a time sensitive matter

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    Introduction: The assessment of resting state (rs) neurophysiological dynamics relies on the control of sensory, perceptual, and behavioral environments to minimize variability and rule-out confounding sources of activation during testing conditions. Here, we investigated how temporally-distal environmental inputs, specifically metal exposures experienced up to several months prior to scanning, affect functional dynamics measured using rs functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Methods: We implemented an interpretable XGBoost-shapley additive explanation (SHAP) model that integrated information from multiple exposure biomarkers to predict rs dynamics in typically developing adolescents. In 124 participants (53% females, ages, 13-25 years) enrolled in the public health impact of metals exposure (PHIME) study, we measured concentrations of six metals (manganese, lead, chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc) in biological matrices (saliva, hair, fingernails, toenails, blood, and urine) and acquired rs-fMRI scans. Using graph theory metrics, we computed global efficiency (GE) in 111 brain areas (Harvard Oxford atlas). We used a predictive model based on ensemble gradient boosting to predict GE from metal biomarkers, adjusting for age and biological sex. Results: Model performance was evaluated by comparing predicted versus measured GE. SHAP scores were used to evaluate feature importance. Measured versus predicted rs dynamics from our model utilizing chemical exposures as inputs were significantly correlated (p < 0.001, r = 0.36). Lead, chromium, and copper contributed most to the prediction of GE metrics. Discussion: Our results indicate that a significant component of rs dynamics, comprising approximately 13% of observed variability in GE, is driven by recent metal exposures. These findings emphasize the need to estimate and control for the influence of past and current chemical exposures in the assessment and analysis of rs functional connectivity

    Elevated cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in macaques following early life stress and inverse association with hippocampal volume: preliminary implications for serotonin-related function in mood and anxiety disorders

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    Background: Early life stress (ELS) is cited as a risk for mood and anxiety disorders, potentially through altered serotonin neurotransmission. We examined the effects of ELS, utilizing the variable foraging demand (VFD) macaque model, on adolescent monoamine metabolites. We sought to replicate an increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) observed in two previous VFD cohorts. We hypothesized that elevated cisternal 5-HIAA was associated with reduced neurotrophic effects, conceivably due to excessive negative feedback at somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors. A putatively decreased serotonin neurotransmission would be reflected by reductions in hippocampal volume and white matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA).Methods: When infants were 2-6 months of age, bonnet macaque mothers were exposed to VFD. We employed cisternal CSF taps to measure monoamine metabolites in VFD (N = 22) and non-VFD (N = 14) offspring (mean age = 2.61 years). Metabolites were correlated with hippocampal volume obtained by MRI and WM FA by diffusion tensor imaging in young adulthood in 17 males [10 VFD (mean age = 4.57 years)].Results: VFD subjects exhibited increased CSF 5-HIAA compared to non-VFD controls. An inverse correlation between right hippocampal volume and 5-HIAA was noted in VFD- but not controls. CSF HVA and MHPG correlated inversely with hippocampal volume only in VFD. CSF 5-HIAA correlated inversely with FA of the VVM tracts of the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) only in VFD.Conclusions: Elevated cisternal 5-HIAA in VFD may reflect increased dorsal raphe serotonin, potentially inducing excessive autoreceptor activation, inducing a putative serotonin deficit in terminal fields. Resultant reductions in neurotrophic activity are reflected by smaller right hippocampal volume. Convergent evidence of reduced neurotrophic activity in association with high CSF 5-HIAA in VFD was reflected by reduced FA of the ALIC.NIMHSuny Downstate Med Ctr, Nonhuman Primate Lab, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Brooklyn, NY 11203 USANew York State Psychiat Inst & Hosp, New York, NY 10032 USASuny Downstate Med Ctr, Coll Med, Brooklyn, NY 11203 USAUniversidade Federal de São Paulo, Dept Psychiat & Neuroradiol, São Paulo, BrazilFranklin Beha Hlh Consultants, Bronx, NY USANew York State Psychiat Inst & Hosp, Dept Mol Imaging & Neuropathol, New York, NY 10032 USAIcahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Psychiat, New York, NY 10029 USAIcahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Neurosci, New York, NY 10029 USAIcahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Radiol, New York, NY 10029 USAIcahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Fishberg Dept Neurosci, New York, NY 10029 USAIcahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Friedman Brain Inst, New York, NY 10029 USAYale Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, New Haven, CT USAMichael E Debakey VA Med Ctr, Mental Hlth Care Line, Houston, TX USABaylor Coll Med, Menninger Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Houston, TX 77030 USAYale Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Child Study, New Haven, CT 06510 USAUniversidade Federal de São Paulo, Dept Psychiat & Neuroradiol, São Paulo, BrazilNIMH: R21MH066748NIMH: R01 MH059990Web of Scienc

    Color-Octet Fraction in J/Psi Production and Absorption

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    The cross section between a ccˉc \bar c pair and a nucleon is small and sensitive to the c−cˉc - \bar c separation if the pair is in a color-singlet state, but very large and insensitive to the separation if it is in a color-octet state. We use this property in an absorption model involving both color components to deduce the color structure of ccˉc \bar c pairs produced in p(B)A→ψXp(B)A \to \psi X reactions. Our analysis shows that the NA3, NA38 and E772 data are not inconsistent with the theoretical picture that color-octet and color-singlet precursors are produced in roughly equal proportions if the produced color-singlet precursors are pointlike and transparent. However, if the color-singlet precursors are not transparent but have a cross section of a few mb, these data do show a definite preference for a larger fraction of color-singlet precursors. In either case, the color-octet fraction increases with xFx_F, approaching unity as xFx_F becomes large.Comment: 9 pages, updated to include new result
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