48,516 research outputs found

    Properties of Resonating-Valence-Bond Spin Liquids and Critical Dimer Models

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    We use Monte Carlo simulations to study properties of Anderson's resonating-valence-bond (RVB) spin-liquid state on the square lattice (i.e., the equal superposition of all pairing of spins into nearest-neighbor singlet pairs) and compare with the classical dimer model (CDM). The latter system also corresponds to the ground state of the Rokhsar-Kivelson quantum dimer model at its critical point. We find that although spin-spin correlations decay exponentially in the RVB, four-spin valence-bond-solid (VBS) correlations are critical, qualitatively like the well-known dimer-dimer correlations of the CDM, but decaying more slowly (as 1/ra1/r^a with a≈1.20a \approx 1.20, compared with a=2a=2 for the CDM). We also compute the distribution of monomer (defect) pair separations, which decay by a larger exponent in the RVB than in the CDM. We further study both models in their different winding number sectors and evaluate the relative weights of different sectors. Like the CDM, all the observed RVB behaviors can be understood in the framework of a mapping to a "height" model characterized by a gradient-squared stiffness constant KK. Four independent measurements consistently show a value KRVB≈1.6KCDMK_{RVB} \approx 1.6 K_{CDM}, with the same kinds of numerical evaluations of KCDMK_{CDM} give results in agreement with the rigorously known value KCDM=π/16K_{CDM}=\pi/16. The background of a nonzero winding number gradient W/LW/L introduces spatial anisotropies and an increase in the effective K, both of which can be understood as a consequence of anharmonic terms in the height-model free energy, which are of relevance to the recently proposed scenario of "Cantor deconfinement" in extended quantum dimer models. We also study ensembles in which fourth-neighbor (bipartite) bonds are allowed, at a density controlled by a tunable fugacity, resulting (as expected) in a smooth reduction of K.Comment: 26 pages, 21 figures. v3: final versio

    Representation of SO(3) Group by a Maximally Entangled State

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    A representation of the SO(3) group is mapped into a maximally entangled two qubit state according to literatures. To show the evolution of the entangled state, a model is set up on an maximally entangled electron pair, two electrons of which pass independently through a rotating magnetic field. It is found that the evolution path of the entangled state in the SO(3) sphere breaks an odd or even number of times, corresponding to the double connectedness of the SO(3) group. An odd number of breaks leads to an additional π\pi phase to the entangled state, but an even number of breaks does not. A scheme to trace the evolution of the entangled state is proposed by means of entangled photon pairs and Kerr medium, allowing observation of the additional π\pi phase.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    After heat distribution of a mobile nuclear power plant

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    A computer program was developed to analyze the transient afterheat temperature and pressure response of a mobile gas-cooled reactor power plant following impact. The program considers (in addition to the standard modes of heat transfer) fission product decay and transport, metal-water reactions, core and shield melting and displacement, and pressure and containment vessel stress response. Analyses were performed for eight cases (both deformed and undeformed models) to verify operability of the program options. The results indicated that for a 350 psi (241 n/sq cm) initial internal pressure, the containment vessel can survive over 100,000 seconds following impact before creep rupture occurs. Recommendations were developed as to directions for redesign to extend containment vessel life

    Optical properties of Si/Si0.87Ge0.13 multiple quantum well wires

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    Nanometer-scale wires cut into a Si/Si0.87Ge0.13 multiple quantum well structure were fabricated and characterized by using photoluminescence and photoreflectance at temperatures between 4 and 20 K. It was found that, in addition to a low-energy broadband emission at around 0.8 eV and other features normally observable in photoluminescence measurements, fabrication process induced strain relaxation and enhanced electron-hole droplets emission together with a new feature at 1.131 eV at 4 K were observed. The latter was further identified as a transition related to impurities located at the Si/Si0.87Ge0.13 heterointerfaces

    A fiber-optic current sensor for aerospace applications

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    A robust, accurate, broad-band, alternating current sensor using fiber optics is being developed for space applications at power frequencies as high as 20 kHz. It can also be used in low and high voltage 60 Hz terrestrial power systems and in 400 Hz aircraft systems. It is intrinsically electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and has the added benefit of excellent isolation. The sensor uses the Faraday effect in optical fiber and standard polarimetric measurements to sense electrical current. The primary component of the sensor is a specially treated coil of single-mode optical fiber, through which the current carrying conductor passes. Improved precision is accomplished by temperature compensation by means of signals from a novel fiber-optic temperature sensor embedded in the sensing head. The technology contained in the sensor is examined and the results of precision tests conducted at various temperatures within the wide operating range are given. The results of early EMI tests are also given

    Fiber-optic sensors for aerospace electrical measurements: An update

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    Fiber-optic sensors are being developed for electrical current, voltage, and power measurements in aerospace applications. These sensors are presently designed to cover ac frequencies from 60 Hz to 20 kHz. The current sensor, based on the Faraday effect in optical fiber, is in advanced development after some initial testing. Concentration is on packaging methods and ways to maintain consistent sensitivity with changes in temperature. The voltage sensor, utilizing the Pockels effect in a crystal, has excelled in temperature tests. This paper reports on the development of these sensors, the results of evaluation, improvements now in progress, and the future direction of the work

    Two-dimensional electron-gas actuation and transduction for GaAs nanoelectromechanical systems

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    We have fabricated doubly clamped beams from GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well heterostructures containing a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Applying an rf drive to in-plane side gates excites the beam's mechanical resonance through a dipole–dipole mechanism. Sensitive high-frequency displacement transduction is achieved by measuring the ac emf developed across the 2DEG in the presence of a constant dc sense current. The high mobility of the incorporated 2DEG provides low-noise, low-power, and high-gain electromechanical displacement sensing through combined piezoelectric and piezoresistive mechanisms
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