1,824 research outputs found

    Video TFRC

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    TCP-friendly rate control (TFRC) is a congestion control technique that trade-offs responsiveness to the network conditions for a smoother throughput variation. We take advantage of this trade-off by calculating the rate gap between the theoretical TCP throughput and the smoothed TFRC throughput. Any rate gain from this rate gap is then opportunistically used for video coding. We define a frame complexity measure to determine the additional rate to be used from the rate gap and then perform a rate negotiation to determine the target rate for the encoder and the final sending rate. Results show that although this method has a more aggressive sending rate compared to TFRC, it is still TCP friendly, does not contribute too much to network congestion and achieves a reasonable video quality gain over the conventional method

    Partnership in the Age of Generative Artificial Intelligence

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    A review of test protocols for assessing coating performance of water ballast tank coatings

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    Concerns on corrosion and effective coating protection of double hull tankers and bulk carriers in service have been raised especially in water ballast tanks (WBTs). Test protocols/methodologies specifically that which is incorporated in the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), Performance Standard for Protective Coatings for Dedicated Sea Water ballast tanks (PSPC) are being used to assess and evaluate the performance of the coatings for type approval prior to their application in WBTs. However, some of the type approved coatings may be applied as very thick films to less than ideally prepared steel substrates in the WBT. As such films experience hygrothermal cycling from operating and environmental conditions, they become embrittled which may ultimately result in cracking. This embrittlement of the coatings is identified as an undesirable feature in the PSPC but is not mentioned in the test protocols within it. There is therefore renewed industrial research aimed at understanding this issue in order to eliminate cracking and achieve the intended coating lifespan of 15 years in good condition. This paper will critically review test protocols currently used for assessing and evaluating coating performance, particularly the IMO PSPC

    IREEL: remote experimentation with real protocols and applications over emulated network (extended version)

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    In the context of education, experimenting with networking protocols is a very important step in the learning process. These experiments are usually achieved using either simulation or real test bed. Progresses in high speed processing and networking enable the development of network emulators. These emulators use both real protocol implementations and network models that allow a controlled communication environment to be created

    Assessment of tree registration in Leyte and Biliran Islands

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    Staff in six Community Environment and Natural Resources Offices (CENROs) − four in Leyte Province, three in Southern Leyte Province and one in Biliran − were interviewed to establish baseline information on tree registration. In general, the rate of tree registration was found to be low, except in CENRO Maasin, where during 1997 to 2006 a total of 2799 tree farms were registered, covering an aggregate area of 2807 ha and with 1,292,495 trees registered. The highest number of tree farms registered in CENRO Maasin took place in 2004, when a total of 531 were registered, covering an area of 373 ha. Measures and strategies practiced by this CENRO to promote tree registration include: conducting an information, education and communication (IEC) campaign including distribution of extension materials; establishing a link between farmers and buyers in marketing products; and encouraging barangay officials to disseminate tree registration information. Factors leading to the low tree registration rate in Leyte and Biliran CENROs include: long distance between farms and CENR offices; weak tenure (farms under timberland status); inefficient processing of the registration documents; absence of the officer-in-charge of tree registration during farmer visits to Department of Environment and Natural Resources offices; land under common ownership; and farmers unaware about the tree registration process. Suggestions by respondents to improve tree registration include: regularly conducting IEC activities including distribution of extension material, supported by necessary funding; hiring of additional personnel for this purpose, to be assigned in every municipality; enhancing the timber market network; deputizing barangay officials as Environment and Natural Resources Officers (ENROs) to conduct tree inventory, authorized by municipal officials to collect Tree Inventory Certification. Keywords: ,

    A modified method of evaluating the impact of air humidity on human acceptable air temperatures in hot-humid environments

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    This research aims to investigate human thermal responses to air humidity in warm and hot environments and to evaluate the effect of humidity on human thermal comfort. 20 subjects were involved in 12 exposure experiments in a well-controlled climate chamber at three relative humidity levels (40%, 60%, 80%) and four air temperature levels (26 °C, 28 °C, 30 °C, 32 °C) with little indoor airflow. The physical environmental and physiological parameters, as well as subjective questionnaires, were collected simultaneously with the on-going experiments. The results show that in hot environments, particularly when the air temperature exceeds 30 °C, the relative humidity has a significant effect on human thermal responses both physiologically and subjectively. The Standard Effective Temperature (SET) is biased when evaluating human thermal comfort in hot-humid environments without considering human thermal adaptation to humidity. Hence, a humidity correction coefficient eRH is proposed to modify the deviation of the SET under different relative humidity levels, and to quantify the effect of humidity on human acceptable air temperatures. The modified acceptable temperature-humidity zone has been obtained using the modified method

    Performance of IMERG as a Function of Spatiotemporal Scale

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    The Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG), a global high resolution gridded precipitation data set, will enable a wide range of applications, ranging from studies on precipitation characteristics to applications in hydrology to evaluation of weather and climate models. These applications focus on different spatial and temporal scale and thus average the precipitation estimates to coarser resolutions. Such a modification of scale will impact the reliability of IMERG. In this study, the performance of the Final run of IMERG is evaluated against ground-based measurements as a function of increasing spatial resolution (from 0.1 deg to 2.5 deg) and accumulation periods (from 0.5 h to 24 h) over a region in the southeastern US. For ground reference, a product derived from the Multi-Radar/Multi-Sensor suite, a radar- and gauge based operational precipitation dataset, is used. The TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) is also included as a benchmark. In general, both IMERG and TMPA improve when scaled up to larger areas and longer time periods, with better identification of rain occurrences and consistent improvements in systematic and random errors of rain rates. Between the two satellite estimates, IMERG is slightly better than TMPA most of the time. These results will inform users on the reliability of IMERG over the scales relevant to their studies

    MiR-24 is required for hematopoietic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells

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    Overexpression of miRNA, miR-24, in mouse hematopoietic progenitors increases monocytic/ granulocytic differentiation and inhibits B cell development. To determine if endogenous miR-24 is required for hematopoiesis, we antagonized miR-24 in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and performed in vitro differentiations. Suppression of miR-24 resulted in an inability to produce blood and hematopoietic progenitors (HPCs) from ESCs. The phenotype is not a general defect in mesoderm production since we observe production of nascent mesoderm as well as mesoderm derived cardiac muscle and endothelial cells. Results from blast colony forming cell (BL-CFC) assays demonstrate that miR-24 is not required for generation of the hemangioblast, the mesoderm progenitor that gives rise to blood and endothelial cells. However, expression of the transcription factors Runx1 and Scl is greatly reduced, suggesting an impaired ability of the hemangioblast to differentiate. Lastly, we observed that known miR-24 target, Trib3, is upregulated in the miR-24 antagonized embryoid bodies (EBs). Overexpression of Trib3 alone in ESCs was able to decrease HPC production, though not as great as seen with miR-24 knockdown. These results demonstrate an essential role for miR-24 in the hematopoietic differentiation of ESCs. Although many miRNAs have been implicated in regulation of hematopoiesis, this is the first miRNA observed to be required for the specification of mammalian blood progenitors from early mesoderm

    Revealing the microstructural evolution of electron beam powder bed fusion and hot isostatic pressing Ti-6Al-4V in-situ shelling samples using X-ray computed tomography

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    Electron beam powder bed fusion/hot isostatic pressing (E-PBF/HIP), also known as in-situ shelling, is an emerging technology that produces components by only forming their shells whilst retaining sintered powder at the core, and then using HIP to consolidate the entire structure. E-PBF/HIP can boost additive manufacturing productivity, however, the fundamental understanding of the process-microstructure-property correlations remains unclear. Here, we systematically investigate the microstructural evolution of E-PBF/HIP Ti-6Al-4V parts as a function of hatch melting parameters. All HIPped samples achieve full densification, however, their microstructures are significantly different from one another. Using X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and optical microscopy, our results show that the HIPped Ti-6Al-4V microstructure can be controlled by varying the porosity, P (%), pore surface areas and morphology in the as-built parts with a single set of HIP parameters. The HIPped microstructures still exhibit the as-built columnar grains when the as-built porosity, P 5 % with a highly dense pore network. This work suggests two main drivers for the grain morphology transitions during HIP: (1) a dramatic increase in pore volume increases the localised applied pressure up to 4 times at the core region of the sample and (2) minimise lack-of-fusion pores with high surface energies, promoting dynamic recrystallisation. This study provides a fundamental insight into the E-PBF/HIP technology, showing the feasibility to tailor microstructural properties of E-PBF built parts whilst boosting additive manufacturing productivity

    Thermoreversible gelation in poly(ethylene oxide)/carbon black hybrid melts

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    The study focuses on the structure and viscoelasticity of poly(ethylene oxide)/carbon black fluids. The hybrids when subjected to extreme thermal annealing (at temperatures far above the melting point of the matrix) exhibit a 3-4 orders of magnitude increase in viscosity. Surprisingly, the effect is reversible and the viscosity reverts back to its initial value upon subsequent cooling. This rather unique sol-gel transition in terms of strength, steepness and thermal reversibility points to major structural rearrangements via extensive particle clustering, in agreement with microscopy observations. In related systems it was found that when matrix-particle electrostatic interactions are present the gelation is essentially diminished
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