8,198 research outputs found

    A Dopamine-Acetylcholine Cascade: Simulating Learned and Lesion-Induced Behavior of Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons

    Full text link
    The "teaching signal" that modulates reinforcement learning at cortico-striatal synapses may be a sequence composed of an adaptively scaled DA burst, a brief ACh burst, and a scaled ACh pause. Such an interpretation is consistent with recent data on cholinergic interneurons of the striatum are tonically active neurons (TANs) that respond with characteristic pauses to novel events and to appetitive and aversive conditioned stimuli. Fluctuations in acetylcholine release by TANs modulate performance- and learning- related dynamics in the striatum. Whereas tonic activity emerges from intrinsic properties of these neurons, glutamatergic inputs from thalamic centromedian-parafascicular nuclei, and dopaminergic inputs from midbrain are required for the generation of pause responses. No prior computational models encompass both intrinsic and synaptically-gated dynamics. We present a mathematical model that robustly accounts for behavior-related electrophysiological properties of TANs in terms of their intrinsic physiological properties and known afferents. In the model balanced intrinsic hyperpolarizing and depolarizing currents engender tonic firing, and glutamatergic inputs from thalamus (and cortex) both directly excite and indirectly inhibit TANs. If the latter inhibition, probably mediated by GABAergic NOS interneurons, exceeds a threshold, its effect is amplified by a KIR current to generate a prolongued pause. In the model, the intrinsic mechanisms and external inputs are both modulated by learning-dependent dopamine (DA) signals and our simulations revealed that many learning-dependent behaviors of TANs are explicable without recourse to learning-dependent changes in synapses onto TANs

    Neuropeptide Co-Release with Gaba May Explain Functional Non-Monotonic Uncertainty Responses in Dopamine Neurons

    Full text link
    Co-release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA and the neuropeptide substance-P (SP) from single axons is a conspicuous feature of the basal ganglia, yet its computational role, if any, has not been resolved. In a new learning model, co-release of GABA and SP from axons of striatal projection neurons emerges as a highly efficient way to compute the uncertainty responses that are exhibited by dopamine (DA) neurons when animals adapt to probabilistic contingencies between rewards and the stimuli that predict their delivery. Such uncertainty-related dopamine release appears to be an adaptive phenotype, because it promotes behavioral switching at opportune times. Understanding the computational linkages between SP and DA in the basal ganglia is important, because Huntington's disease is characterized by massive SP depletion, whereas Parkinson's disease is characterized by massive DA depletion.National Science Foundation (SBE-354378); Higher Educational Educational Council of Turkey; Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University of Turke

    A Local Circuit Model of Learned Striatal and Dopamine Cell Responses under Probabilistic Schedules of Reward

    Full text link
    Before choosing, it helps to know both the expected value signaled by a predictive cue and the associated uncertainty that the reward will be forthcoming. Recently, Fiorillo et al. (2003) found the dopamine (DA) neurons of the SNc exhibit sustained responses related to the uncertainty that a cure will be followed by reward, in addition to phasic responses related to reward prediction errors (RPEs). This suggests that cue-dependent anticipations of the timing, magnitude, and uncertainty of rewards are learned and reflected in components of the DA signals broadcast by SNc neurons. What is the minimal local circuit model that can explain such multifaceted reward-related learning? A new computational model shows how learned uncertainty responses emerge robustly on single trial along with phasic RPE responses, such that both types of DA responses exhibit the empirically observed dependence on conditional probability, expected value of reward, and time since onset of the reward-predicting cue. The model includes three major pathways for computing: immediate expected values of cures, timed predictions of reward magnitudes (and RPEs), and the uncertainty associated with these predictions. The first two model pathways refine those previously modeled by Brown et al. (1999). A third, newly modeled, pathway is formed by medium spiny projection neurons (MSPNs) of the matrix compartment of the striatum, whose axons co-release GABA and a neuropeptide, substance P, both at synapses with GABAergic neurons in the SNr and with the dendrites (in SNr) of DA neurons whose somas are in ventral SNc. Co-release enables efficient computation of sustained DA uncertainty responses that are a non-monotonic function of the conditonal probability that a reward will follow the cue. The new model's incorporation of a striatal microcircuit allowed it to reveals that variability in striatal cholinergic transmission can explain observed difference, between monkeys, in the amplitutude of the non-monotonic uncertainty function. Involvement of matriceal MSPNs and striatal cholinergic transmission implpies a relation between uncertainty in the cue-reward contigency and action-selection functions of the basal ganglia. The model synthesizes anatomical, electrophysiological and behavioral data regarding the midbrain DA system in a novel way, by relating the ability to compute uncertainty, in parallel with other aspects of reward contingencies, to the unique distribution of SP inputs in ventral SN.National Science Foundation (SBE-354378); Higher Educational Council of Turkey; Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University of Turke

    Simulating Effects of Learning and Lesions with a Model of Intrinsic and Synaptically Gated Responses of Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons

    Full text link
    The giant cholinergic interneurons of the striatum are tonically active neurons (TANs) that respond with characteristic pauses to novel events and to appetitive and aversive conditioned stimuli. Fluctuations in acetylcholine release by TANs modulate performance- and learning-related dynamics in the striatum. Whereas tonic activity emerges from intrinsic properties of these neurons, glutamatergic inputs from thalamic centromedian-parafascicular nuclei, and dopaminergic inputs from midbrain, are required for the generation of pause responses. No prior computational models encompass both intrinsic and synaptically-gated dynamics. We present a mathematical model that robustly accounts for behavior-related electrophysiological properties of TANs in terms of their intrinsic physiological properties and known afferents. In the model, balanced intrinsic hyperpolarizing and depolarizing currents engender tonic firing, and glutamatergic inputs from thalamus (and cortex) both directly excite and indirectly inhibit TANs. If the latter inhibition, presumably mediated by GABAergic interneurons, exceeds a threshold, its effect is amplified by a KIR current to generate a prolonged pause. In the model, the intrinsic mechanisms and external inputs are both modulated by learning-dependent dopamine (DA) signals and our simulations revealed that many learning-dependent behaviors of TANs are explicable without recourse to learning-dependent changes in synapses onto TANs. The "teaching signal" that modulates reinforcement learning at cortico-striatal synapses may be a sequence composed of an adaptively scaled DA burst, a brief ACh burst, and a scaled ACh pause. Such an interpretation is consistent with recent data on cholinergic control of LTD of cortical synapses onto striatal spiny projection neurons.National Science Foundation (SBE-354378); Higher Education Council of Turkey; Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University of Turke

    On the beliefs off the path: equilibrium refinement due to quantal response and level-k

    Get PDF
    This paper studies the relevance of equilibrium and nonequilibrium explanations of behavior, with respects to equilibrium refinement, as players gain experience. We investigate this experimentally using an incomplete information sequential move game with heterogeneous preferences and multiple perfect equilibria. Only the limit point of quantal response (the limiting logit equilibrium), and alternatively that of level-k reasoning (extensive form rationalizability), restricts beliefs off the equilibrium path. Both concepts converge to the same unique equilibrium, but the predictions differ prior to convergence. We show that with experience of repeated play in relatively constant environments, subjects approach equilibrium via the quantal response learning path. With experience spanning also across relatively novel environments, though, level-k reasoning tends to dominate

    Vendettas

    Get PDF

    Game Harmony as a Predictor of Cooperation in 2 x 2 Games

    Get PDF
    This paper presents an experimental test of the relationship between game harmony and cooperation in 2 x 2 games. Game harmony measures describe how harmonious (non-conflictual) or disharmonious (conflictual) the interests of players are, as embodied in the payoffs: coordination games and constant-sum games are examples of games of perfect harmony and disharmony, respectively; most games are somewhere in the middle. Correlation coefficients between measured harmony and cooperation rates were above 0.8 in an experiment with games such as the Prisoner`s Dilemma, the Stag-Hunt, a coordination game and three trust games, and above 0.55 in an experiment with random games.Game harmony, Cooperation, 2 x 2 games, Trust games, Social dilemmas

    Effects of Lombard Reflex on the Performance of Deep-Learning-Based Audio-Visual Speech Enhancement Systems

    Full text link
    Humans tend to change their way of speaking when they are immersed in a noisy environment, a reflex known as Lombard effect. Current speech enhancement systems based on deep learning do not usually take into account this change in the speaking style, because they are trained with neutral (non-Lombard) speech utterances recorded under quiet conditions to which noise is artificially added. In this paper, we investigate the effects that the Lombard reflex has on the performance of audio-visual speech enhancement systems based on deep learning. The results show that a gap in the performance of as much as approximately 5 dB between the systems trained on neutral speech and the ones trained on Lombard speech exists. This indicates the benefit of taking into account the mismatch between neutral and Lombard speech in the design of audio-visual speech enhancement systems
    corecore